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42 terms

Anatomy & Physiology: Urinary System

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Hilus
Concave area of kidney where blood vessels, nerves and ureter enter or leave.
Capsule
Tough, fibrous outer covering. At necropsy should peel off easily.
Cortex
Outer layer of kidney tissue just under the capsule. Looks granular due to presence of the glomeruli.
Medulla
Beneath cortex. Lined or striated looking due to collecting ducts.
Renal Pelvis
Funnel shaped area of the hilus where urine collects before entering the ureter.
Renal Artery
Enters the kidney and becomes the arcuate arteries which then become the afferent glomerular arterioles which then form the glomerulus.
Ureter
The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
Ectopic Ureter
Do not connect from kidney to bladder but rather from kidney to urethra.
Bladder
Hollow expandable organ. Smooth muscle. Lies at the cranial brim of the pelvis. Apex is cranial. Caudal portion is called the neck.
Urethra
Smooth muscle tube used for urine to exit the body.
Kegals
Exercises to do that will strengthen the pelvic muscles to help treat incontinence.
Nephron
Basic functional unit of the kidney. Approx. one million in each kidney. Is a tube used for collecting waste from the blood and converting it into urine.
Glomerulus
A tuft of capillaries located in the cortex. Afferent and Efferent arterioles that go to and from it. These capillaries are "leaky."
Bowman's Capsule
The funnel portion of a set of tubules that process the "filtrate" to convert it to urine.
PCT
Longest section of the nephron. Found in the cortex. Reabsorbs many things the body wants to conserve.
Loop of Henle
U shaped tube with a descending limb that is thin walled and a thick ascending loop. Extends into the medulla. Contains the most concentrated solution in it's lowest area. Is responsible for the concentration of our urine.
DCT
Not as twisted as PCT. Last part of nephron. Found in cortex.
Collecting Ducts
Many neprhons dump their wastes into each collecting ducts. Straight. Pass through the medulla to reach the pelvis.
Interstitial Space
Area around the tubules and the blood vessels in the kidney. Area where things that are conserved get removed from the filtrate within the tube.
Urine Production
Necessary for homeostasis. Necessary to excrete wastes and extra water. Filtration, reabsorption. secretion take place.
glomerulus
At what part of the kidney is the blood filtered?
blood flow to kidneys, blood pressure
What does the amount of filtration through the kidneys depend on?
90%
What percentage of the blood gets filtered by the kidneys?
10%
What percentage of the blood actually nourishes the kidneys?
every 5 minutes
How often is the animals total blood volume filtered?
180
For every liter of urine formed, approximately how many liters of blood were filtered?
Clearance
What is the ability of a substance to be removed from the blood by the kidney and excreted in the urine.
Na/Cl, bicarbonate, glucose, a.a.
What 5 things are reabsorbed back into the body in the PCT?
80%
How much of the filtrates water is reabsorbed back into the body in the PCT?
H, K, NH3
What is excreted in the PCT?
counter-current mechanism
What is the loop of henle responsible for?
Diuresis
What is increased urine production?
Diuretic
What are drugs that increase diuresis?
body pH
What does the kidney help control?
Cystitis
What is an inflammation or infection of the bladder
Nephritis
What is an inflammation or infection of the kidney
Urolithasis
What are urinary stones or calculi?
Pyeloephritis
What is an inflammation or infection of kindey and renal pelvis
Azotemia
What is an increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood typically where 75% of all nephrons are damaged?
Uremia
What is azotemia with other physical signs such as uremic breath, acidosis, and oral ulceration?
Isosthenuria
What is very dilute urine that can be a permanent condition where typically 67% of nephrons are damaged?
Micturition
What is the act of urinating?