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Concave area of kidney where blood vessels, nerves and ureter enter or leave.


Tough, fibrous outer covering. At necropsy should peel off easily.


Outer layer of kidney tissue just under the capsule. Looks granular due to presence of the glomeruli.


Beneath cortex. Lined or striated looking due to collecting ducts.

Renal Pelvis

Funnel shaped area of the hilus where urine collects before entering the ureter.

Renal Artery

Enters the kidney and becomes the arcuate arteries which then become the afferent glomerular arterioles which then form the glomerulus.


The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.

Ectopic Ureter

Do not connect from kidney to bladder but rather from kidney to urethra.


Hollow expandable organ. Smooth muscle. Lies at the cranial brim of the pelvis. Apex is cranial. Caudal portion is called the neck.


Smooth muscle tube used for urine to exit the body.


Exercises to do that will strengthen the pelvic muscles to help treat incontinence.


Basic functional unit of the kidney. Approx. one million in each kidney. Is a tube used for collecting waste from the blood and converting it into urine.


A tuft of capillaries located in the cortex. Afferent and Efferent arterioles that go to and from it. These capillaries are "leaky."

Bowman's Capsule

The funnel portion of a set of tubules that process the "filtrate" to convert it to urine.


Longest section of the nephron. Found in the cortex. Reabsorbs many things the body wants to conserve.

Loop of Henle

U shaped tube with a descending limb that is thin walled and a thick ascending loop. Extends into the medulla. Contains the most concentrated solution in it's lowest area. Is responsible for the concentration of our urine.


Not as twisted as PCT. Last part of nephron. Found in cortex.

Collecting Ducts

Many neprhons dump their wastes into each collecting ducts. Straight. Pass through the medulla to reach the pelvis.

Interstitial Space

Area around the tubules and the blood vessels in the kidney. Area where things that are conserved get removed from the filtrate within the tube.

Urine Production

Necessary for homeostasis. Necessary to excrete wastes and extra water. Filtration, reabsorption. secretion take place.


At what part of the kidney is the blood filtered?

blood flow to kidneys, blood pressure

What does the amount of filtration through the kidneys depend on?


What percentage of the blood gets filtered by the kidneys?


What percentage of the blood actually nourishes the kidneys?

every 5 minutes

How often is the animals total blood volume filtered?


For every liter of urine formed, approximately how many liters of blood were filtered?


What is the ability of a substance to be removed from the blood by the kidney and excreted in the urine.

Na/Cl, bicarbonate, glucose, a.a.

What 5 things are reabsorbed back into the body in the PCT?


How much of the filtrates water is reabsorbed back into the body in the PCT?

H, K, NH3

What is excreted in the PCT?

counter-current mechanism

What is the loop of henle responsible for?


What is increased urine production?


What are drugs that increase diuresis?

body pH

What does the kidney help control?


What is an inflammation or infection of the bladder


What is an inflammation or infection of the kidney


What are urinary stones or calculi?


What is an inflammation or infection of kindey and renal pelvis


What is an increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood typically where 75% of all nephrons are damaged?


What is azotemia with other physical signs such as uremic breath, acidosis, and oral ulceration?


What is very dilute urine that can be a permanent condition where typically 67% of nephrons are damaged?


What is the act of urinating?

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