Chapter 13-Industrial Organizational Psychology
Terms in this set (29)
-Study of behavior and mental processes.
What is I/O Psychology?
-I/O Psychology: Branch of psychology is concerned with the study of behavior in work settings and the application of psychology principles to change work behavior
-I/O Psychologists are scientist-practitioners
-Efficiency/productivity of organizations
-Health/well-being of employees
Origins of I/O Psychology
-Scientific Management - Frank Taylor
-Determine the most efficient methods for performing any work-related task
-Time and motion studies
-Selection and recruitment of military recruits
-Ergonomics / Human Factors
-Intersection of engineering and psychology
-Focuses on safety and efficiency of human-machine interactions
-Perception, attention, cognition, learning, social, and environmental psychology
Origins of I/O Psychology (continued....)
-Hawthorne Studies (1927-1932)
-How work conditions influence productivity
-The Hawthorne Effect
-Individual productivity increases when workers are singled out and made to feel important
-Performance is subject to social pressures and group norms
-Human Relations Approach
-Emphasis on how to use human resources to increase efficiency and productivity
-Job analysis and evaluation
-Generating a detailed job description
-Follow a systematic procedure
-Break the job into small units
-Create an employee manual
-Integrity tests and biographical inventories
-Work Samples and Exercises
-Acquaint employees with the organization and with other employees
-Overlearning - making the task "automatic"
-"Natural" mentoring relationships
-Evaluating a person's success at their job
-Sources of Bias
-Central tendency errors
-Emphasis on research and practice involving human relations:
-A management approach emphasizing the psychological characteristics of workers and managers, stressing the importance of such factors as morale, attitudes, values, and humane treatment of workers.
-Meaning of Work
-The "Japanese" Management Style
-Theory X and Theory Y
-Managers motivate by exerting control and threatening punishment.
-Managers motivate by allowing workers to participate in problem solving.
-Measuring Work Attitudes
-Fairness of compensation
-Personality characteristics of individuals
Critical Controversy: Happy Workers
-Long-term happiness is related to
-Emotional attachment to the organization.
-Perception of economic and social costs of leaving the organization.
-Sense of obligation to the organization.
Meaning of Work
-Jobs, Careers, and Callings
-Relationship to Psychological Well-Being
No training, personal control, freedom
-Work as opportunity for advancement
-Work has value beyond economics
-Physical and cognitive changes that individuals make within existing task constraints.
-Emphasizes vision for an organization
-Four key elements
1)Providing idealized influence
2)Inspiring others to achieve
3)Intellectually stimulating employees
4)Showing concern for employee's well-being
-Promotes organizational identity
Genetic Contributions to Leadership
-Personality traits and twin studies
-Extraversion and achievement motivation
-Transactional and transformational leadership
Big 5 Personality Traits and Leadership
Leaders' Implicit Followership Theories (LIFT)
-Leaders have beliefs/prototypes of what followers are suppose to be like
-Six key factors of LIFT:
-Prototype: Industry, Enthusiasm, Good Citizen
-Antiprototype: Insubordination, Incompetence, Conformity
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