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Air Mass
A body of air with the same temperature and moisture throughout.
Atmosphere
The thin blanket of gases that surrounds the earth.
Climate
Weather conditions that are characteristic of a region or of a particular place over a long period of time.
Conduction
The transfer of heat energy that occurs when molecules bump into each other, transferring their movement to neighboring molecules by touch.
Convection
The transfer of heat by flow of material in gasses and liquids, for example air and water.
Humidity
Amount of water vapor in the air.
Hurricane
A massive rotating storm that forms north of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean when warm air rises over tropical waters; has wind speeds of 119 km/hour or more.
Meteorology
The study of earth's atmosphere and the monitoring, studying and forecasting of weather.
Phase (state of Matter)
A distinct state of matter in a system; matter that is identical in chemical composition and physical state and separated from other material by the phase boundary
Radiation
The process by which energy is transfered from one object to another object without the space between them being heated.
Season
A short period of climate change in an area caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis as Earth revolves around the Sun.
Temperature
A measure of how hot or cold a material is (the average molecular motion), an indication of the amount of heat energy that has been absorbed by the material.
Tornado
A violent windstorm that spirals around a rotating column of air (the vortex) and moves in a narrow path over land.
Vortex
The movement of liquids or gases in a spiral around a central axis. In a storm it is the calm center area around which clouds spiral.
Weather
The current state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Wind
The perceptible natural movement of the air, esp. in the form of a current of air blowing from a particular direction.
Waterspout
A rotating column of air over a large body of water.
Tornado warning
A communication to the public that a tornado has been seen by someone or detected by radar.
Barometer
A instrument used to detect and measure changes in air pressure.
Typhoon
A massive rotating storm that forms north of the equator in the western Pacific Ocean. It is equivalent to a hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean, eastern Pacific Ocean, or Caribbean Sea.
Troposphere
The layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth, in which air moves in all directions. It is where most of the earth's weather takes place.
Stratosphere
The layer of earth's atmosphere above the troposphere. It has very little water vapor or other gases; protective ozone layer forms there.
Air Pressure
The weight of air.
Satellite
In astronomy, a celestial body that orbits a planet; a moon. In aerospace, an object launched to orbit Earth or another celestial body.
Ozone Layer
A part of the stratosphere that contains a special form of oxygen that traps the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation and keeps it from reaching the troposphere.
Solar energy
Energy from the sun.
Thunderstorm
A disturbance in the earth's atmosphere that involves lightning, thunder, and sometimes gusty surface winds with heavy rain and hail.
Meteorologist
A scientist who studies the earth's atmosphere and who monitors, studies, and forecasts weather.
Storm surge
An unusually high water level, caused primarily by strong winds, especially those associated with a hurricane.
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Tornado Watch
A communication to the public that tornadoes are possible. In other words, thunderstorms with high winds and rains that may produce a tornado are in the area.
Air Pressure
Weight of air pressing down on a given area of earth's surface. Low air pressure equals stormy weather. High air pressure equals fair weather.
Condensation
The process by which vapor changes from a gas to a liquid.
Currents
A gas or liquid that moves in a definite direction
Surface Current
Surface water that flows in response to wind blowing over the ocean.
Deep Ocean Current
Currents that flow far beneath the surface of the ocean.
Convection Current
A circulating flow of air or water resulting from temperature differences.
Density
Amount of mass (g) in a given volume (cm3) of a substance or object; found by dividing the mass of the object by its volume.
Dew Point
The temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor and dew forms. The dew point varies depending on how much water vapor is in the air.
Evaporation
The process by which water changes from a liquid to an invisible gas called water vapor.
Fog
A stratus cloud that forms when air is cooled to its dew point near the ground.
Front
A boundary between air mass of different temperature, pressure, and humidity conditions.
Global Winds
Giant convection currents that circulate within the N. And S. hemispheres of the earth. examples: easterlies,westerlies, and trade winds.
Ground Water
Water that collects in cracks and spaces in the rocks and sediments beneath Earth's surface.
Jet Stream
A long, narrow current of very strong winds in the upper troposphere.
Precipitation
Water falling from clouds to earth as either rain, snow, or hail.
Salinity
Saltiness, the amount of dissolved solids in a solution,such as ocean water,usually measured as percent or parts per thousand (ppt).
Sea
A continuous body of salt water that covers most of the earth's surface. A region of water within an ocean and partly enclosed by land, such as the North Sea.
Sublimation
Change from the solid state to the gaseous state without first passing through the liquid state.
Upwelling
Deep,cold ocean currents rise along coastal areas when winds blow the warm surface water aside.
Watershed
An area of land that drains water from higher land to lower land and into a stream.
Water Table
The level at which the ground beneath the surface is saturated with water. The water table usually rises after heavy rainfall and the melting of snow and falls during drier periods.
Transpiration
The process of giving off vapor containing water and waste products, especially through the stomata on bottom sides of leaves of plants.
Hydrologic Cycle
Continuous movement of water between the surface of earth and the troposphere, the water cycle.
El Niño
A warming of the surface water of the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, occurring every 4 to 12 years and causing unusual weather patterns. The warmer water kills fish and plankton, brings heavy rains to western South America, and causes drought in eastern Australia and Indonesia.
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