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Fall Exam (semester 1) Honors Biology
Terms in this set (238)
What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and thus sustain themselves without consuming organic molecules derived from other organisms?
Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are...
what is the likely origin of chloroplasts?
photosynthetic prokaryotes that lived inside eukaryotic cells
In most green plants, chloroplasts are...
concentrated in a zone of leaf tissue called the mesophyll
CO2 enter and O2 escapes from the leaf via
In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the
Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called
where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell?
the oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from
which of the following molecules is a reactant of photosynthesis
a redox reaction involves the transfer of
which of the following statements concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, whereas in respiration, sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide
Which step of the citric acid cycle requires both NAD+ and ADP as reactants? ( image on chapter 6 test)
which H+ has just passed through the inner mitochondrial membrane by diffusion? (image on chapter 6 test)
hydrogen ion D
With bats, what is the relationship between metabolic rate and body temperature? (graph on chap 6 test)
when metabolic rate drops, so does body temperature
why does the relationship between metabolic rate and temperature exist?
a by-product of cellular respiration is heat.
Bats contain brown fat between their shoulder blades. How could this brown fat be an adaption to torpor?
the mitochondria in brown fat can produce heat without making ATP
which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria
how do cells capture the energy release by cellular respiration?
they produce ATP
The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversion, some energy is
lost in the form of heat
respiration................, and cellular respiration..............
is gas exchange; produces ATP
which of the following are products of cellular respiration
energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?
cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step
the overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + H2O + energy
humans use the calories they obtain from ......... as their source of energy
which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline
a kilocalorie is defined as
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree C
during redox reactions,
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
during cellular respiration, the energy in glucose
is carried by electrons
oxidation is the................., and reduction is the.........................
loss of electrons; gain of electrons
during cellular respiration, NADH
delivers it's electron load to the first electron carrier molecule
which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order
glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
during which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?
as a result of glycolysis, there is a net gain of ....... ATPs.
how many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis?
which of the following is a result of glycolysis
conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
forms at the end of glycolysis
which of the following statements regarding the chemical grooming of pyruvate is false?
each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH
the end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except
the function of coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle is most like
a limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom
at the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in
The mitochondrial cristae are an adaption that
increases the space for more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase complexes
by-products of cellular respiration include
carbon dioxide and water
which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false
oxidative phosphorylation resulting from 1 glucose molecule yields about 12 ATP molecules
which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized
In yeast cells,
alcohol is produced after glycolysis
Bacteria that are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are called
yeast can produce ATP by either fermentation or oxidative phosphorylation; thus, they are
when did the level of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere become high enough to sustain aerobic respiration?
2.7 billion years ago
which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false?
Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis
Which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false?
oxidative phosphorylation resulting from 1 glucose molecule yields 12 ATP molecules
which figure depicts an animal cell placed in a solution hypotonic to the cell (chap 5 test)
cell A, the one that lysed
which part of the ATP molecule breaks free of the rest when an ATP molecule is used for energy? (pic in chap 5 test)
part D, last phosphate
the fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membranes consisting of
diverse proteins embedded in a phospholipid bilayer
most of the functions of a cell membrane, including transport and enzymatic function, are performed by,
the cholesterol associated with animal cell membranes
helps to keep phospholipids form being too close to one another
which of the following statements regarding membrane protein function is false?
membrane proteins transfer genetic information to the cytoplasm
plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that
the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave the cell more easily than others
which of the following statements regarding membrane function is false?
the plasma membrane is the control center of the cell
All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane that is similar in........... and................
small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids
easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer
which of the following substances would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer
oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by
diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of
osmosis can be defined as
the diffusion of water
some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment
is hypotonic to the protozoan
In the lab, you use a special balloon that is permeable to water but not sucrose to make an 'artificial cell'. The balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80%water and is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. Which of the following will occur?
water will leave the balloon
A cell that has neither a net gain of water nor net loss of water when it is immersed in a solution must be
isotonic to its environment
if placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?
the relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall
a plant cell in a hypotonic solution
becomes turgid because of an inflow of water
you are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result
you dehydrate yourself
facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires......... and moves a substance................its concentration gradient
transport proteins; down
the molecules responsible for membrane transport are
which of the following statements is true for all types of passive transport
the concentration gradient is the driving force
which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient
which of the following statements regarding active transport is false
active transport is driven by the concentration gradient
the process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is
phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is to
cells acquire low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by
certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it in to the stomach. this enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?
According to................, energy cannot be created or destroyed
the first law of thermodynamics
what is the basic difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?
Exergonic reactions release energy; endergonic reactions absorb it
anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely
result in cell death
the transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule or compound is called
An energy barrier
prevents the spontaneous breakdown of molecules in the cell
The energy required to initiate an exergonic reaction is called
most of a cell's enzymes are
when an enzyme catalyzes a reaction
it lowers the activation energy of the reaction
the active site of an enzyme is
the region of an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true
enzymes catalyze specific reactions
kinetic energy differs from chemical energy in that
kinetic energy is the energy of a moving object, whereas chemical energy is potential energy of molecules
heating inactivates enzymes by
changing the enzyme's three-dimensional shape
which of the following substances could be a cofactor
a zinc atom
which of the following is a coenzyme?
how does inhibition of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by a competitive inhibitor differ from inhibition by a noncompetitive inhibitor
competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of the enzyme; noncompetitive inhibitors bind to a different site
bacterial production of the enzymes needed for the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan declines with increasing levels of tryptophan and increases as tryptophan levels decline. This is an example of
using the data from the graphs and what you know about membranes and metabolic pathways, predict which of the following is the likely reason why actions of aquaporins in a membrane can change so rapidly (image chap 5 test)
aquaporins are inserted into the membrane as needed
how do the data in Figure A relate to the data in figure B and C ( image on Chap 5 test)
figure C is essentially a summary of the data in figure A
which part of the mitochondria shown enhances its ability to produce ATP by increasing the surface area of a mitochondrial membrane?
part D (cristae)
which of the following statements about cells is true
all cells have internal structures that move
use light and glass lenses to magnify an image
resolution is the
ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate
which of the following statements about electron microscopes is true?
electron microscopes focus electron beams to create a magnified image on an object
the idea that all living things are composed of cells and that cells come from other cells defines
a scanning electron microscope is used to study.............. whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study
cell surfaces; internal cell structures
as cell size increases, the
volume increases proportionally more than the surface area
a pathologist who wants to examine a patient's liver cells to determine if the mitochondria haven internal structure defect will likely need to use a
transmission electron microscope
In the plasma membrane, the phospholipid heads
are hydrophilic and face outward toward the aqueous solution on both sides of the membrane
................cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus
a bacterial cell's DNA is found in its
which of the following structure is/ are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces
unlike animals, plant cells have...................and..................... Unlike plant cells, animals cells have................. .
chloroplasts; cell walls; centrioles
the nucleus of a cell
the complex of proteins and DNA in a nondividing cells is called
during cell reproduction, chromatin fibers coil up into structures called
the function of the nucleolus is
which location in the cell is unlikely to contain ribosomes or ribosomal subunits?
the endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except the
smooth endoplasmic reticulum...
stores calcium ions in muscle cells
the main function or the rough endoplasmic reticulum is the production of
membrane and proteins secreted by the cell
the cells that produce hair made of protein contain a lot of................ , while the cells that produce oils that coat the hair contain a lot of.................
rough endoplasmic reticulum; smooth endoplasmic reticulum
the golgi apparatus
stores, modifies, and packages proteins
which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?
lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids
Tay-sachs disease results from the malfunction of...
prevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water
which organelle is involved in the catabolism of fatty acids and the detoxification of alcohol?
insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream. Which of the following options correctly lists the order of the structures through which insulin passes from its production to its exit from the cell?
rough ER, transport vesicles, golgi apparatus, transport vesicles, cell membrane
the function of mitochondria is...
the...................of a mitochondria is/are an adaption that increases the surface area and enhances a mitochondria's ability to produce ATP
the function of chloroplasts is
the stroma is the
thick fluid enclosed by the inner chloroplast membrane
mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in that mitochondria....
contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana
the endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes that...
a small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells
microfilaments differ from microtubules in that microfilaments...
are mainly composed of actin, whereas microtubules are composed of tubulin
surround the nucleus
cilia differ from flagella in that...
cilia are typically more numerous and shorter than flagella
are found in microtubules in cilia and flagella and cause movement by grabbing and pulling at adjacent microtubules doublets
the extracellular matrix attached to cells via glycoproteins may then bind to............... in the plasma membrane.
which of the following would be most affected by a mutation that prevented cells from forming tight junctions?
integrity of the inner lining of the digestive tract
Skin cells are fastened into strong sheets by...
which of the following statements regarding plasmodesmata is false?
plasmodesmata are found in plants as well as some single-celled organisms
based on their function, you would expect melancytes in the skin to have higher than usual number of
The oil from the sebaceous glands is produced by which of the following cell organelles?
these two molecules are structural isomers. What is the difference between them ( Pic on Chap 3 test)
the location of a double bonded oxygen atom
how are these two amino acids attached (pic on chap 3 test)?
amino group to carboxylic group
lactose intolerance is the inability to...
always contain carbon
propanol and isopropanol are isomers. This means that they have..
the same molecular formula but different chemical properties
which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds
a hydroxyl group is...
characteristic of alcohols
which of the following is a carboxyl group?
which of the following is an amino group?
which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?
which of the following functional groups is capable of regulation gene expression?
the results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by...
what is the general function of enzymes within a cell?
to speed up chemical reactions
the molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of...
a molecule with the formula C55 H110 O55 is probably a/an...
many names for sugars end in the suffix...
a disaccharide forms when...
two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis
which of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?
cellulose, starch, glycogen
cellulose differs from starch in that...
most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested
cows can derive nutrients from cellulose because...
their intestinal tract contains cellulose-hydrolyzing microorganisms
the storage form of carbohydrates is....................in animals and................in plants.
which of the following organisms contain the polysaccharide chitin?
fungi and insects
An oil may be converted into a substance that is solid at room temperature by...
adding hydrogens, decreasing the number of double bonds in the molecules
What feature of fats makes them hydrophobic?
fats have nonpolar hydrocarbon chains
Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be...
the development of atherosclerotic disease can result from a diet high in...
which of the following statements about animal cell lipids is false?
many lipids function as enzymes
a phospholipid is composed of...
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids
which of the following substance is made of lipids?
A major type of lipid found in cell membranes is...
Amino acids can be distinguished from one another by...
the chemical properties of their R groups
link amino acids
Which of the following would be correctly classified as a protein?
Proteins cannot be denatured by...
The primary structure of a protein is...
the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain
Which of the following is an example of secondary structure in a protein?
an alpha helix
The tertiary structure of a polypeptide refers to...
the overall three-dimensional structure
A protein containing more than one polypeptide chain exhibits the.............level of protein structure
How are genes used by cells to build proteins?
DNA is transcribed into an amino acid sequence
Which of the following options correctly pairs a polymer and its monomer?
DNA differs from RNA because DNA...
contains thymine in pace of uracil
Which type of fat was found to contribute the most relative risk of developing heart disease?
Which of the following foods would be least likely to contribute to the development of coronary heart disease?
Myosin is a contractile protein found in muscles that is composed of three pairs of subunits, two heavy chains, and two pairs of two different types of light chains, for a total of six subunits. Myosin contains what level of protein structure?
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
What is the complementary sequence to the DNA strand TCGATGG
The four most common elements in living organisms are...
C, H, O, N
Which of the following is a trace element in the human body?
Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O
Only H2O is a compound
Which of the following trace elements needed by humans is commonly added to table salt?
In some areas, fluoride is added during the municipal of water treatment process in order to help...
reduce tooth decay
Which of the following particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
protons and neutrons
Electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in the same way that...
insects fly around a bright lamp at night
what is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many electrons does boron have?
The sodium atom contains 11 electrons, 11 protons, and 12 neutrons. What is the mass number of sodium?
Which of the following best describes the atomic number of an atom?
the number of protons in the atom
Typically, nitrogen are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. An isotope of nitrogen could...
have more neutrons than the usual nitrogen atom
A radioactive isotope is an isotope that...
When full, the innermost electron shell of argon contains.............. electrons , and then outermost shell contains.................electrons.
What happens to an atom if the electrons in the outer shell are altered?
The properties of the atom change
A/an.........................forms when two atoms share electrons.
A hydrogen atom has one electron. How many covalent bond can hydrogen form?
Table salt is formed when...
sodium donates its single outer electron to chlorine
What is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?
In a covalent bond, the partners share a pair of electrons; in an ionic bond, one partner accepts electrons from the other
Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?
Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a ................... bond
A single water molecule (H-O-H) is held together by...
two polar covalent bonds
..................... are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to from molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large molecules.
Water molecules stick to other water molecules because...
hydrogen bonds from between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are................ and the H2O molecules are ...................
In plants, the process of photosynthesis produces glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is true?
All of the carbon atoms from the carbon dioxide are found in glucose
The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as...
Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity are accounted for by its
As ice melts, ...
hydrogen bonds are broken
Which of the following statements about water is false?
Ice is more dense than liquid water
Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?
the universality of water as a solvent
You've made a hot drink by dissolving a teaspoon of instant coffee and a teaspoon of sugar in a cup of hot water. Which of the following statements is true?
You've just prepared an aqueous solution
A solution with a pH of 7 is...
Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is...
100 times more acidic
Which of the following statements about pH is true?
An increase in hydrogen ion concentration means a decrease in pH scale units.
donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.
What change is occurring in this figure? ( chap 2 test question 38)
Chlorine is filling it's third electron shell
The figure shows five water molecules. The hydrogen bonds shown in this figure are each... (chap 2 test question 39)
between oxygen and a hydrogen atom of different water molecules
Below is the structure of octane, the major component of gasoline (chap 2 test question 40)
only nonpolar covalent bonds
Which of the following statements about radioactive isotopes is true?
The energy emitted by radioactive isotopes can break chemical bonds and cause molecular damage in cells
which of the following statements regarding chemical reactions is false?
some chemical reactions create electrons; others destroy them
A pharmaceutical company hires a chemist to analyze the purity of the water being used in it's drug preparations. If the water is pure, the chemist would expect to find?
only molecules of H2O
When a cell is deprived of oxygen, its lysosomes tend to burst and release their contents into the cell. As a result of this, that cell will...
undergo self-digestion and die.
Archaea are composed of ________ cells.
The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
allows different chemical conditions to be maintained in different parts of the cell.
Which of the following statements regarding the endomembrane system is false?
The endomembrane system is a system of interrelated membranes that are all physically connected.
A(n) _____ bond joins two oxygen atoms.
The hydrogen atoms of a water molecule are bonded to the oxygen atom by ________ bonds, whereas neighboring water molecules are held together by ________ bonds.
polar covalent; hydrogen
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