25 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 14 Vocab, Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 15 Genetic Engineering

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Genome
entire set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA
Karyotype
micrograph of the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size
Sex chromosome
one of two chromosomes that determines an individual's gender
Autosome
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; also called autosomal chromosome
Sex-linked gene
a gene located on a sex chromosome
pedigree
chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations
nondisjunction
error in meiosis in which the homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly...may lead to trisomy and/or monosomy
restriction enzyme
enzyme that cuts DNA at a sequence of nucleotides
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
bioinformatics
application of mathematics and computer science to store, retrieve, and analyze biological data
genomics
study of whole genomes, including genes and their functions
selective breeding
the process of mating organisms with specific characteristics in order to produce desired offspring
hybridization
crossing dissimilar organisms to bring together the traits of both individuals
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
biotechnology
the application of a technological process, invention, or method to living organisms
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a laboratory technique used to make multiple copies of a segment of DNA
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
plasmid
small circular DNA molecules found in the cytoplasm of many bacteria and yeast; used for recombinant DNA studies
genetic marker
a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid from those who don't
transgenic
containing genes from another organism; produced by the insertion of recombinant DNA into the genome of its host organism
clone
a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
gene therapy
process of changing a gene to treat a medical disease or disorder. An absent or faulty gene is replaced by a working gene.
DNA microarray
a glass slide of silicon chip where spots of single stranded DNA have been attached
DNA fingerprinting
an analysis of an individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments; used to determine if two samples of genetic material are from the same individual.
forensics
the scientific study of crime scene evidence
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