Lab exam 4 Bio 129 PSU

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Terms in this set (153)
Bladderhollow sac stores the urine formed in the kidneyUretertube that transports urine from the kidney and to the bladderKidneyorgan that filters the blood, returning nutrients and other material the body needs to the circulatory, and at the same time removing waste products and excess material and dumping those into the urinespermatic cordmade up of the ductus deferens, the testicular artery, and the testicular vein. travels from the testis of the scrotum, through the inguinal canal, and into the abdominal cavityOvaryorgan that makes oocytes (egg cells)- the female reproductive cellsUterine tube (oviduct, fallopian tube)transports ovulated oocytes from the ovary and to the uterus. if sperm cells are present, fertilization will occur in this.infundibulumportion of the uterine tube that opens over the ovaryfimbriaeextends from the edges of the infundibulumUterushollow structure that contains a thick layer of smooth muscle and is lined with a tissue. if fertilization hasa occurred, the zygote will implant in this. Has the following regions: Fundus, Body, and CervixMyometriumthick layer of smooth muscle in the uterusendometriumtissue that lines the uterusCervixnarrow muscular opening to the uterus that usually contains sticky mucus, which prevents the passage of bacteria and other pathogens. when a woman ovulates, the mucus thins to allow the sperm to pass through.Vagina (vaginal canal)the hollow muscular tube that connects the uterus to the outside worldVaginal Orificeexternal opening of the vagina (vaginal canal); the walls of the vaginal canal and this in preparation for intercourseVaginal Rugaethe inside lining of the vaginal canal (vagina) that provides friction to the penis during intercourse (muscular ridges)Ovarian ligamenta fibrous ligament that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus.Suspensory ligamenta fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis (only visible in the cat specimen)Broad ligamentperitoneal fold that attaches the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries to the pelvis.Mesosalpinxpart of the broad ligament that wraps around the uterine tubemesovariumpart of the broad ligament that wraps around the ovarymesometriumeverything else, supports the uterusvestibule (female reproductive)a gland beneath the skin, called the vestibular canal, secretes a fluid that lubricates this in preparation for intercourselabia majorThey form the lateral boundaries of the vulval or pudendal cleft, which receives the openings of the vagina and the urethra.labia minorthe smaller inner folds of the vulvaclitoriscontains a spongy tissue layer similar to the corpus cavernosa in the penisdura mater (meninges)thick outer covering; thick, tough, connective tissue that separates the softer meninges and the brain itself from the cranial bonesarachnoid mater (meninges)spider web strings in between folds; loose mesh of protein fibers found between the dura and the pia mater, can be seen clearly between the cerebral and the cerebellar hemispheres.Pia mater (meninges)right on the brain; thin, delicates, almost transparent membrane adheres closely to the gyri, sulci, and other external structures of the brain, cant be separated from thee structures to which it adheresCerebral cortex (cerebrum) (Telencephalon)found within the right and left hemispheresgyriridges seem on the surface of the cerebrumsulcivalleys between the gyriThe circuit of nerves within the cerebral hemispherescontrol your voluntary movements, allow you to interpret your senses, think thoughts and make judgements, and is the place where your memories are storedlongitudinal fissure (telencephalon)separates the right and left cerebral hemispherescorpus callosum (telencephalon)holds 2 halves, allows the information to be transmitted rapidly between the right and left halves of the cerebral hemispheresfornixwhite tract just below the corpus callosum (this plus the corpus callosum outline the lateral ventricle), lower lip of lateral ventriclePossible theorycerebral spinal fluid is made in the choroid plexusPossible Theoryflow of cerebral spinal fluid: lateral ventricle--> third ventricle--> cerebral aqueduct--> 4th ventricleLateral ventricle (telencephalon)can be seen in the right and left cerebral hemispheres between the corpus callosum and the fornix. also contains cerebral spinal fluid.choroid plexusblack stringy in lateral ventricle; dark tissue found in the ventriclesseptum pellucidumcovers lateral ventricle; membrane that separates the right and left lateral ventriclesOlfactory nerve (I)(cranial nerve in the telencephalon)sensory nerves that deliver information about smell. they pass through the cribriform foramina to the olfactory bulbs, which then transmit information via the olfactory tracts to the cerebral hemispheresolfactory bulbsis a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smellolfactory tractsbundle of axons connecting the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb to several target regions in the brainThalamus (Diencephalon)primarily a switchboard that routes information to the cerebrum, also plays a role in memory and basic emotionsIntermediate masscenter of thalamus, round portion of the thalamus observed in the sagittal section; a group of nerve cells that connect the right and left halves of the thalamus, outlined circle in thalamusThird Ventricleunder the fornix and over thalamus, the sulcus that forms a ring around the thalamus, divit on top of thalamusHypothalamus (Diencephalon)tissue just below and somewhat anterior to the thalamus, the neural circuits in this are involved in hormone secretion, help regulate almost all autonomic functions , set sleep/ wake cycles, and function in memoryMammillary bodythe rounded structure visible externally in the hypothalamus, posterior to hypothalamusPituitary glandhangs just below the hypothalamus (secretes many hormones)Infundibulumstalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus, small tube just anterior to the mammillary bodyPineal Gland (Diencephalon)also referred as the epithalamus, role is unknown in humans but in animals is regulating sexual maturation and breeding, ball posterior to intermediate massOptic nerve (II) (cranial nerve in the diencephalon)these nerves are sensory and transmit visual information from the retina of the eye to the diencephalon and mesencephalon, from there the information is transmitted to the telencephalonOptic chiasmaX- shaped area where some neurons from the left eye cross over the right side of the brain, and vice versaSuperior colliculi (Mesencephalon: Midbrain)neural circuits within these structures control your blink reflex, focusing, and pupils, as well as the movement of your eyes as you visually track an object (over)Inferior colliculi (Mesencephalon)these structures relay information from the ears to the rest of the brain (under), posterior and inferior to pineal glandCorpora quadrigeminasuperior colliculi plus inferior colliculiCerebral peduncle (mesencephalon)these structures are bundles of nerve cells that relay information between different parts of the central nervous system, below cerebral aqueductCerebral aqueduct (mesencephalon)CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) travels from the third to the fourth ventricle through this area in between peduncle and quadrigeminaOculomotor nerve (III) (Cranial nerve of the mesencephalon)this motor nerve controls eye movements, the eyelid, the pupils, and the muscle of the ciliary body, kinda in the middle, little flappyTrochlear nerve (IV) (Cranial nerve of the mesencephalon)this motor nerve also controls eye movement, small stringy, in between and to the side of the cerebrum and the cerebellumPons (Metencephalon)this structure relays information between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and the medulla, also helps regulate some autonomic functions, bump under the cerebral peduncleThe hindbrainformed by the metencephalon and the myelencephalonCerebellum (Metencephalon)neural circuits in this help control skeletal muscle during motions that have become automatic (what some people call "muscle memory" or "learned reflexes") also important in judhging time and rhythm, making distinctions about things you touch, judging how something is oriented in 3D space, and the ability to distinguish between similar sounding wordsRight and left cerebellar hemispheresthe cerebellum is externally made up of these.Vermisthick ridge that connects the right and left cerebellar hemispheresFoliafolds on the surface of the cerebellum (like gyri)Arbor vitaea complex white branching pattern of visible nerve cells (tree of life)Fourth Ventricle (metencephalon)cerebral spinal fluid flows from the third ventricle, through the cerebral aqueduct, and into this; this structure narrows to become the central canal of the spinal cord, between cerebellum and the medullaTrigeminal nerve (V) (cranial nerve of the metencephalon)this mixed nerve transmits sensory information from the face and controls many of the muscles involved in chewing, big one lateral to ponsAbducens nerve (VI) (cranial nerve of the metencephalon)this motor nerve also controls eye movement, directly below ponsFacial nerve (VII) (cranial nerve of the metencephalon)this mixed nerve transmits sensory information from the tongue to the thalamusVestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) (cranial nerve of the metencephalon)this sensory nerve transmits information about hearing and equilibrium to the brain this cranial nerve used to be called the auditory nerve, however since it transmits sensory information from both the cochlea (sounds) and vestibule (equilibrium/balance), its name was changed to be more descriptiveMedulla oblongata (myelencephalon)this large structure at the base of the brain that contains tracts of nerves traveling to and from the spinal cord as well as important circuits of neurons that regulate the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, and reflexes such as coughing, sneezing, and vomittingGlossopharyngeal nerve (IX) (cranial nerve in the myelencephalon)nerve that helps control salivation and the muscles involved in swallowing and gagging. also transmits sensory information from the tongue and outer earVagus nerve (X) (cranial nerve in the myelencephalon)this mixed nerve transmits sensory information from the tongue, stomach, and the abdominal organs, as well as controlling swallowing and speech, and helping to regulate the heart, breathing, and digestionaccessory nerve (XI) (cranial nerve in the myelencephalon)this motor nerve controls muscles in the pharynx as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper part of the trapeziushypoglossal nerve (XII) (cranial nerve in the myelencephalon)this motor nerve controls muscles in the tongue and floor of the mouthAnterior cavity (anterior chamber + posterior chamber)Aqueous humor circulates through these structures providing nourishment to the cornea and lensAnterior chamberthis is the space between the iris and the cornea. It connects to the posterior chamber through the pupilCornea (anterior chamber)this clear tissue focuses light (along with the lens) on the retinaIris (anterior chamber)pigments in this give the eye its "color"pupil (anterior chamber)this is the opening connecting the anterior and posterior chambers. light passes through this on its way to the lens and the retinaposterior chamberthe space between the lens and the iris, connects the anterior chamber through the pupillens (posterior chamber)this structure is made of a gel-like protein and helps focus light on the retinaciliary body (posterior chamber)this structure contains smooth muscle cells that regulate the shape of the lens by pulling on the suspensory ligaments, aqueous humor is also secretes by capillaries within this structureSuspensory ligamentstiny almost invisible structures that connect the lens to the muscle of the ciliary bodyposterior cavitythe space behind the ciliary body, and contains the vitreous humorvitreous humor (posterior cavity)the thing that's calls "jelly ball" helps maintain the spherical shape of the eye, accumulation of the cellular debris in this contributes to the "floaters" some people see as they grow olderRetina (posterior cavity)layer of cells that convert light energy to electric impulses (action potentials) which are then transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve, innermost lining of the eyechoroid (posterior cavity)this layer contains blood vessels that nourish the eye, and its dark color absorbs stray light (coat), second innermost lining of the eye, in between retina and scleratapetum lucidum (posterior cavity)this shiny metallic looking tissue in the sheep eye improves low light vision. it is not present in humanssclera (posterior cavity)this is the tough white outer covering of the eye (scleroid coat)optic nerve (posterior cavity)this sensory nerve carries electric impulses ( action potentials) from the eye to the brainSuperior rectus musclethis muscle rotates the eye upwardtrochleathis loop of tissue acts as a pulley, allowing contraction of the superior oblique muscle to rotate the eye, not the muscle but the white loop in cornersuperior/ inferior oblique musclerotate the eye clockwise or counter clockwise when the head tilts to either side, indicated and the looped oneinferior rectus musclethis muscle rotates the eye downwardlateral rectus musclemuscle that rotates the eye laterallymedial rectus musclethis muscle rotates the eye mediallylacrimal glandthis gland produces tears and has two portions the superior lacrimal gland and the inferior lacrimal glandnasolacrimal ductthis structure runs through the lacrimal canal of the skull and drains tears into the nasal cavity (this is why your nose runs when you cry)pinnathis is the outer portion of the ear that people like to pierce and use to display jewelry. it helps channel sound vibrations into the auditory canalexternal acoustic meatusthis is the outer tunnel that transmits sound vibration to the tympanic membranetympanic membranethis structure is often referred to as the "ear drum." sound vibrations traveling through the external auditory canal strike this membrane and cause it to vibrate, right on end of external acoustic meatusmiddle earthis is the area between the tympanic membrane and the cochleamalleusthis is the first of three middle ear bones that amplify vibrations of the tympanic membrane and transmit those vibrations to the membrane covering the oval windowincusthis is the second of the three middle ear bones that amplify vibrations of the tympanic membrane and transmit those vibrations to the membrane covering the oval windowstapesthis is the third of the three middle ear bones that amplify vibrations of the tympanic membrane and transmit those vibrations to the membrane covering the oval windowoval windowthis is the membrane covered opening to the scala vestibuli. The stapes attaches to the membrane of thisinternal earthis inner ear contains the cochlea , vestibule, utricle, ampullae, and semicircular ductsvestibule (ear)this is the bony structure that houses the utricle and saccule. it is also the entry into the semicircular canalssacculecontains sensory cells that are sensitive to the tilt of the head. this is also important in sensing linear acceleration in an upward/downward directionutriclecontains sensory cells that are sensitive to the tiliting of the head like the saccule. is also important in sensing linear acceleration in a forward/backward directionampullathese structures contain the cells that convert movement of the head to electric impulses that are transmitted to the brain. these impulses create your sense of movement and balancesemicircular canals/ductsthis fluid filled system of chambers help convert movement of the head into electric impulses (action potentials) that are transmitted to the brain. these impulses create your sense of angular movement in all three axescochleathis snail shell shaped structure contains the chambers and tissues that convert sounds (vibrations) to the electric impulses (action potentials) that are transmitted to the braincochlear ductthis is the central chamber in the cochlea that contains the hearing apparatusscala vestibulisound vibrations enter this chamber via the oval window. this structure is continuous with the scala tympaniscala tympanisound vibrations may enter this chamber before they exit via the round windowround windowthis membrane-covered opening transmits vibrations (pressure) from the scala tympani of the inner ear into the Eustachian (auditory) tubeauditory (Eustachian) tubethis tube helps keep the air pressure in the middle ear the same as the air pressure outside of the body; thus allowing the tympanic membrane to move easilyrenal capsuleoutside of kidneyrenal cortexthick part of kidneyrenal columnspace between pyramid in kidneyrenal medullamultiple pyramids in kidneyrenal pyramidssingle parts in kidneyrenal papillaends of pyramidsrenal calyxgeneral structure by pelvisrenal pelvislarge structureuretertube that transmits fluid from kidney to bladdercentral canaldirectly in the center between the intermediate zoneposterior rooton posterior side of the spinal cord, connects to the posterior funiculusganglioncontaining cell bodies of sensory neuronsanterior rooton anterior side of the spinal cord, connects to the anterior funiculusgray matterconsists largely of neuronal cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated fibersposterior hornon posterior side of spinal cord, in between lateral funiculus and posterior funiculusanterior hornon anterior side of spinal cord, in between lateral funiculus and anterior funiculusintermediate zonein between the anterior and posterior hornsgray commissuredirectly in the center of the spinal cord, in between the intermediate zonewhite matterconsists largely of ascending and descending tracts of axons that appear white due to a surrounding layer of fatty myelinposterior funiculuslarge mass on the posterior side of the spinal cordlateral funiculuson both sides of the spinal cordanterior funiculuson the anterior side of the spinal cord, split in half