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45 terms

A&P II CH-17

Functions of the Heart
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Cardiac output
Stroke volume times heart rate
Systole
phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to myocardial contraction
Diastole
phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to myocardial relaxiation
Startling's law of the heart
change in myocardial contraction that is due to stretching of the heart muscle
inotropic effect
change in myocardial contraction that is not due to stretching of the heart muscle
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one beat
preload
same as end-diastolic volume (EDV)
ejection fraction
percentage of EDV pumped by the ventricle
afterload
arteriolar dilation decreases this
increased heat rate and force of myocardial contraction (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
sympathetic activity
vagal effects (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
parasympathetic activity
activiation of the muscarinic receptors by ACh (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
parasympathetic activity
activation of the beta1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
sympathetic activity
release of stress hormones, such as adrenalin by the adrenal medulla (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
sympathetic activity
stimulation of the SA node (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
sympathetic activity
(?) dromotropic effect and heart block (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
parasympathetic activity
(+) inotropic effect, (+) chronotropic effect, and increased cardiac output (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
sympathetic activity
tachycardia and palpitations (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
sympathetic activity
inhibition of the SA node activity and bradycardia (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)
parasympathetic activity
Preload
the amount of blood in the ventrcle at the end of its resting phase
under what condition is end-diastolic volume (EDV) most likely to increase while ejection freaction decreases
heart failure
A change in preload causes a change in myocardial contractile force. This response is known as a
Starling's law of the heart
A drug causes a (+) inotropic effect, a (?) dromotropic effect. What drug response would you expect to observe
Slow heart rate
A patient in heart failure is given a drug that is classified as a beta, adrenergic agonist. The drug
activates the beta1 adrenergic receptors and causes a (+) inotropic effect
which of the following statements is correct about the cardiac output
cardiac output is determined by heart rate and stroke volume
During ventricular diastole
blood fills the ventricles
increased return of blood to the heart stretches the heart muscle, thereby
increasing stroke volume
Ventricular systole refers to
contraction of the ventricular myocardium
which of the following is least related to the vagus nerve
(+) inotropic effect
Which of the following is least characteristic of sympathetic nerve stimulation?
(?) inotropic effect
Which of the following is descriptive of stroke volume?
ml/beat
Mililiters per minute describes
cardiac ouptut
Which of the following is least likely to increase cardiac output?
vagal discharge
Which of the following is least related to tachydysrhythmia?
vagal discharge
Bradycardia is most likely to be caused by
vagal discharge
Atropine, a muscarinic blocker
increases heart rate
Starling's law relates force of myocardial contraction with
preload
Venodialation
decreases preload
Digoxin is a (+) inotropic agent and therefore
increases cardiac output
An elevation in pulmonary artery pressure is most likely to cause
right ventricular hypertrophy
Which of the following is most likely to elicit a (+) inotropic effect, a (+) drinitriouc effect abd a (+) chronotropic effect?
sympathomimetic activity
Which of the following is a consequense of backward failure assoicated with left sided heart failure?
pulmonary edema
Which of the following is most likely to cause an elevation of pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure?
left ventricluar failure
Which of the following is least likely to be used in the treatment of left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema
peripheral vasoconstrictor such as norepinephrine (levophed)
Jugular vein distention is most associated with
right-sided heart failure