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Microbiology: Final Exam
Terms in this set (83)
You receive antibodies but no immunological memory.
Engaged immune system
Memory T and or B cells are created
Compare and contrast passive and active immunity. Are memory cells created?
Memory cells are created in active immunity but not in passive. Passive is the body receiving antibodies passively via breastfeeding or Ig injection
Body system learns
Naturally acquired infections
Any exposure from all normal modes of transmission
Health care setting
Ex. Flu shot
Compare and contrast live attenuated, inactivated whole-agent, subunit and toxoid vaccines with respect to their composition
Live attenuated vaccines are made from less virulent versions of the pathogen. C. Pox.
Inactivated whole agent vaccines are the whole pathogen but dead. Flu.
Subunit Vaccines use part of the pathogen's components (acellular) Gardasil.
Toxoid vaccines are a modified version of the toxin produced by the pathogen. Tetanus.
Compare and contrast live attenuated, inactivated whole-agent, subunit and toxoid vaccines with respect to the immune response of the patient and their relative microbiological safety
Live attenuated activate the body's immune response. Generally won't cause disease but will train the immune system.
Inactivated requires multiple boosters and presents the whole agent to the body's immune system. No reversion.
Subunit presents part of the pathogen as an antigen to the immune system.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of passive versus active immunization
Active immunity takes longer to work but lasts a long time. Passive immunity works immediately but only lasts a few weeks.
What is a vaccine adjuvant
These boost the immune system's response and are used for non-living viruses to accelerate and prolong the efficacy of the vaccine.
Define Herd immunity
The uninoculated are protected by the inoculated.
Define Contact immunity
Excretion of microbe by vaccinated individual is transmitted to non-immune individual thus immunizing.
Explain how passive immunotherapy works to treat botulism, Rabies or Hepatitis B
Antibodies or other immune system components that are made outside of the body (i.e. in the laboratory) and administered to patients to provide immunity against a disease, or to help them fight off an infection
Skin infections, MRSA, TSS, and food poisoning are all associated with what bacteria?
Is S. aureus Gram + or -?
Pathogenic Gram +
S. aureus // Skin infections
Description: Folliculitis = infection of a hair follicle. Sty = infection of eyelash Furuncle (boil) = bigger infection
Transmission: From hands and nasal secretions onto skin. Can live in nasopharynx
VF: Cell-free coagulase, staphylokinase, hyaluronidase, lipases
Treatment: Drain pus/fluid
What is coagulase?
Triggers clot formation. Protect bacteria from WBC
What is hyaluronidase?
Breaks down hyaluronic acid (connective tissue)
S. aureus // MRSA
Description: Same species as Staphylococcus aureus with resistance gene (pennicillin and methicillin
S. aureus // TSS
Description: high fever, vomiting, specific rash, shock
Transmission: Direct contact from skin
VF: exfoliative toxins
Treatment: Treat for shock, antibiotics
S. aureus // Food poisonings
Description: Nausea, vomiting
Transmission: ingesting contaminated food
VF: Enterotoxins A-E, heat stable. bacteria can be killed by toxins can still be in food
Scarlet fever, Rheumatic fever, necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal pharyngitis are all diseases related to what bacteria?
S. Pyogenes // Streptococcal pharyngitis
Description: Strep throat, fever, purulent lesions, bad breath
Transmission: contact via respiratory droplets
VF: hyaluronic acid capsule
S. Pyogenes // Scarlet Fever
Description: Caused by specific version of streptococcal pharyngitis
Transmission: Strep throat
VF: pyrogenic toxins
S. Pyogenes // Rheumatic Fever
Description: Inflammation leads to damage of heart valves and muscle caused by autoimmune response affecting heart antigens
Transmission: Complication of untreated S. pyogenes pharyngitis.
S. pyogenes // Necrotizing fasciitis
Description: Streptococci enter body through breaks in skin and secrete enzymes and toxins that destroy tissue.
Transmission: Caused by S. pyogenes
VF: proteases, hyaluronidase, pyrogenic toxins
Treatment: Penicillin, antibiotics, surgery
Botulism is associated with what bacteria?
C. botulinum // Botulism
Description: Food-borne botulism, flaccid paralysis
Transmission: Ingestion of contaminated food (intoxication not infection)
VF: endospores, anaerobic growth, neurotoxin
Treatment: wash intestinal tract, administer anti-toxin
Toxin physically sticks on to terminus of neuron
Can't contract muscles
Tetanus is associated with what bacteria?
C. tetani // Tetanus
Description: tetanus, lockjaw, stiff backward arch, inability to breathe
Transmission: endospores from soil enter cut or wound
VF: endospores, anaerobic growth, tetanospasmin toxin
Treatment: DTap vaccine, passive immunization
Clostridium difficile // C Dif
Description: watery diarrhea to pseudo-membranous colitis
Transmission: ingestion of endospores, can travel airborne
VF: endospores, enterotoxins A and B
Treatment: switch ABXmto vancomycin, probiotics to repopulate intestines
Large sheets of tissue are dying and falling off = perforations, infection in abdominal cavity
Supportive care to replace fluids
What bacteria causes Gas Gangrene?
C. perferingens // Gas Gangrene
Description: Gas in gangrenous tissues
Transmission: endospores into cut
VF: endospores, 11 toxins including ones which lyse red and white blood cells
Treatment: surgical removal of dead tissue, antitoxins, antibiotics, hyperbaric chamber
What bacteria causes TB?
M. tuberculosis // TB
Description: Tough, protective hydrophobic wax coating, cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Transmission: aerosol droplets inhaled from infected individuals talking or coughing
VF: mycolic acid, slow growth, resistance to lysis after phagocytosis, resistance to desiccation
Treatment: combination of 4 antibiotics DOTS
Attenuated mycobacteria bovis
Inhaled bacteria get into the alveoli
Bacteria live in the phagocyte because of mycolic acid
WBCs form clump
Body deposits collagen fibers that make hard lump
aka. reactivated TB
Spreads beyond lungs
Due to tubercle rupture
What doe DOTS stand for?
Directly observed treatment short-course
How is TB diagnosed?
Microscope looking for corded bacteria
Skin test = inject TB antigen and wait to see how big an immune response is mounted
What is unusual about TB treatment?
Initial phase = all 4 for 8 weeks
Continuation phase = 2 for 18 weeks
Vaccine used in countries with high TB rates
What bacteria causes UTIs, Gastroenteritis, O157:H7 infections?
E. coli // UTI
Description: burning during urination, feeling like you have to pee
Transmission: direct contact with fecal matter
E. coli // Gastroenteritis
Description: food poisoning, watery diarrhea, not bloody, nausea, cramps, vomiting
Transmission: contaminated food, source is generally animal feces. Hamburger, raw milk/cheese
VF: enterotoxins secreted lead to symptoms
Treatment: self-limiting, hydration
E. coli // O157:H7
Hemorrhagic colitis: inflammation of the colon resulting in hemorrhaging, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Premature destruction of RBC's throughout the body, overwhelms body and leads to kidney failure.
Transmission: contaminated food source with this particular version of E. coli
VF: Type III secretion system, shiga-like toxin
Treatment: no antibiotics, supportive care, blood transfusion, dialysis
Type III Secretion System
Attaches to target cell, collection of proteins that are basically like a hypodermic needle. Enables bacteria to inject itself into the target cell.
What bacteria cause Salmonellosis and typhoid fever?
Salmonella enterica, S. typhi
S. enterica // Salmonellosis
Description: Non-bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, cramping
Transmission: ingesting contaminated food, commonly poultry
VF: Type III secretion system
Description: Move from intestines (gallbladder) to blood to spleen. Recurring fevers, headache, muscle pain
Transmission: fecal-oral, food or water
VF: Lipid A, fimbriae, capsule
Treatment: Gallbladder removal, antibiotics
Vaccine: injected 2-3 years
oral (live attenuated) 5 years
What bacteria causes gonorrhea?
N. gonorrhea / Gonorrhea
Description: Dippolcocci, painful urination, pus discharge, women often asymptomatic
Transmission: sexually transmitted
VF: Lipid A, fimbriae, capsule
Treatment: antibiotics, resistance an issue
What bacteria causes meningococcal meningitis?
N. meningitidis // Meningococcal meningitis
Description: infection/inflammation of the meninges. Viral meningitis is less severe than bacterial. High fever, stiff neck, petechiae
Transmission: saliva, body fluids
VF: Capsule, Lipid A
Treatment: IV antibiotics, vaccine available at age 11 for 4 most common types of bacteria
Spinal tap to look for dipplococci
What bacteria causes whopping cough?
B. pertussis // Whooping cough
Description: Starts like common cold, coughing fits, whoop on inhalation. Bacteria damages ciliated cells in lungs and inhibits the mucociliary escalator.
Transmission: respiratory droplets
that damage ciliated cells in lungs
Treatment: DTap vaccine (subunit), ABX, supportive care
Common bacterial infection in burn and CF patients?
Description: blue/green color found in burn victims and CF patients.
Transmission: soil, water, feces, contact transmission with sources
VF: Lipid A, fimbriae, capsule, enzyme elastase, pyocyanin
Treatment: ABX combo, harder to treat
What bacteria causes cholera?
Description: rice water stools, watery diarrhea, quick onset, lots of fluid loss, low blood volume
Transmission: ingesting contaminated water or food, spread from sick people via fecal matter
VF: ability to survive in environment, cholera toxin
Treatment: Usually self-limiting, maybe use antibiotic to lower amount of toxin
Vaccine: oral, every 2 years
Bacteria produce exotoxin that is an enterotoxin (intestinal cells)
1 toxin A
5 toxin B
What are the gram-negative cocci and bacilli we studied?
What are the gram-positive bacteria we studied?
What are the pathogenic DNA viruses we studied?
Human Herpes Virus 1 & 2
Human Herpes Virus 1 & 2
Herpes 1: cold sores in mouth
Herpes 2: Genital
Whitlow: cut gets infected by the virus
Transmission: contact with sores. Genital can shed asymptomatically
VF: ability to hid in neurons
Treatment: Acyclovir or Valaciclovir
Acyclovir or Valaciclovir
Nucleotide analog = similar in molecular structure to Guanine
Description: warts. Non-cancerous treated with liquid nitrogen.
100 different types
Several types cause cancer by improper cell division and genetic changes
Transmission: direct or indirect contact via fomite contact
Treatment: HPV Vaccine
How does HPV cause cancer?
Inserts itself into DNA disrupting genes responsible for normal, controlled cell division. The HPV integrates itself into the genome making cancer a possibility
Description: virus replicates in liver cells, jaundice
Transmission: Sexual contact, needles, bodily fluid in contact with mucous membrane
VF: formation of filamentous particles and spherical particles
Treatment: Hepatitis B vaccine
Alpha interferon = daily injections for 16 weeks
Antiviral = slows but doesn't cure
Hep B vaccine
3 doses starting at birth
Spherical and filamentous particles
Keeps immune system busy by pumping out empty viruses
Complete and infective virions. Antibodies will bind to the spherical and filamentous particles making the attack on Dane particles less effective.
What are the pathogenic RNA viruses we studied?
Hepatitis A Virus
Hepatitis C Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Description: naked RNA viruses, stable in water
5% temp fever, sore throat
Transmission: ingestion of fecal contaminated water
HAS to go through digestive system
VF: replicate inside neurons
Treatment: Vaccines IPV and OPV
Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
1955 Salk vaccine
4 doses, safe and cheap
Oral Polio Vaccine
1962 - Sabin
1 dose, 10 cents/dose
Can spread via contact immunity
Hepatitis A Virus
Description: RNA. jaundice, muscle aches, chills, fever, nausea
Transmission: fecal oral route. Contaminated food or water
Treatment: Hep A vaccine given to kids and travelers
Hepatitis C Virus
Transmission: Blood, mucous membrane or cut.
80% asymptomatic which leads to chronic disease
Association with cancer
Treatment: interferon treatment. New drug, 1 pill daily for 12 weeks $$$$
Characterization of HIV
Genome is RNA
2 identical copies of +ssRNA
10 copies of reverse transcriptase to get it started
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Description: gradual destruction of immune system
Transmission: blood, sex
VF: reverse transcriptase, glycoprotein spikes gp120 and gp41
Treatment: AZT, Cocktail, Vaccine?, Protease inhibitor
Where did HIV come from?
Simian immunodeficiency virus
When did HIV come into the human population?
What is important about the virus envelope of HIV?
Contains 2 important glycoproteins involved in attachment
What are the cellular targets of HIV?
Helper T cells
T cells become infected and thus get cleaned up by the immune system
HIV viral replication
Attachment gp120, gp41 create a spike that attaches to a human cell surface receptor protein
Attachment triggers endocytosis
Release from endosome and then uncoating
Synthesis = reverse transcriptase makes copies of the dsDNA from the ssRNA
Virus is inserted into the human DNA
Release process - budding, host cell does not lyse
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch. 16: Adaptive Immunity
Immune System Review Questions
Ch. 17: Immunity
Ch. 20: Gram Negative Cocci + Bacilli
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