speech made by Booker T. Washington and the International Cotton exposition which called for blacks to become proficient in agriculture, mechanics, and commerce, and for whites to trust blacks and provide opportunities for them to be successful economically
Brown, Joseph E. (1821-1894)
an attorney and politician, serving as the 42nd Governor of Georgia (1857-1865), the only governor to serve four terms; Georgia's Civil War governor
three powerful Georgia politicians (Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon) who dominated Georgia politics for over 20 years
Colquitt, Alfred (1824-1894)
a lawyer, preacher, soldier, 49th Governor of Georgia (1877-1882) and two-term U.S. Senator from Georgia (1883-1894), dying in office. He served as an officer in the Confederate army, reaching the rank of major general.
Convict Lease System
a system that provided convict labor to private parties such as railroad companies or plantation owners
Gordon, John B. (1832-1904)
prominent Confederate major general; member of the U.S. Senate (1872- 1880 and 1891-1897); Governor of Georgia (1886); possible leader of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia.
Grady, Henry (1850-1889)
managing editor for the Atlanta Journal who promoted the concept of the "New South."
International Cotton Expositions
a series of three large events (1881, 1885, 1895) established to display Atlanta's growth and industrial capabilities and to lure Northern investment to the region
another name for the Independent Democrats. New South - period after Reconstruction where political and community leaders in the South sought to diversify Georgia's economy and bring Northern technology and/or investments into the state
a short lived political party (1892-1908) made up of farmers that were hostile to banks, railroads, and social elites. At the beginning, the party was made up of both whites and blacks. Georgian Tom Watson was a leader and presidential candidate for the party
Rural Free Delivery Act
legislation proposed by Georgia Congressman Tom Watson that provided free mail delivery to rural areas of the country.
Watson, Tom (1856-1922)
lawyer, writer, and politician from Georgia; most well-known for his rural free delivery bill; began his career in the independent democrat and populist party with a progressive view of racial policies; ended his career as an ardent segregationist and anti-Semite; died while serving a term as U.S. senator from Georgia
to deprive a person the right to vote or rights of citizenship
Atlanta Race Riot (1906)
48 hour riot in Atlanta caused by economic competition and false newspaper accounts of African-American or Black men attacking white women; several African-Americans or Blacks were killed during the riot.
disenfranchisement law that said if a person's father could vote before the Civil War they would be able to vote as well
Hope, John (1868-1936)
an important educator, civil rights leader, and social reformer; president of Morehouse and Atlanta University
Hope, Lugenia Burns (1871-1947)
community organizer, reformer, and social activist; wife of John Hope.
Jim Crow Laws
laws created by state legislatures to deny African-Americans or Blacks citizenship rights
a disenfranchising tactic that required voters to pass a reading and writing test in order to vote
a disenfranchising tactic that required voters to pay a fee in order to vote; this prevented poor blacks and whites from voting
Plessy v. Ferguson (1892)
Supreme Court case that established the separate but equal doctrine thus promoting segregation
Separate but Equal
Supreme Court ruling that legalized racial segregation as long as the facilities were equally funded; however, this was rarely the case
tactic used by whites in Georgia to prevent blacks from voting in the Democratic primary; because Georgia was a one party state, this prevented African-Americans or Blacks from having a voice in elections
Dubois, W.E.B. (1868-1963)
civil rights leader and college professor who fought for immediate social and political rights for African-Americans or Blacks
Herndon, Alonzo (1858-1927)
founder of the Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance Company
The Talented Tenth
W.E.B. Dubois' concept of an elite group of college educated African-Americans or Blacks who would use their talents and position to eradicate segregation in American society
Washington, Booker T. (1856-1915)
educator, author, political activist, and orator; promoted the idea that African-Americans or Blacks should pursue economic and educational endeavors before seeking social and political equality
Leo Frank Case
trial where a Northern Jewish pencil factory manager was accused of murdering 13 year old Mary Phagan; found guilty of the crime and sentenced to death, his sentence was later reduced to life due to additional evidence. However, a group of men calling themselves "the Knights of Mary Phagan" took Frank out of his prison cell and lynched him in Marietta