AP Human Geography Chapter 2
Key terms as a review
Terms in this set (73)
The scientific study of population characteristics.
3 types of density:
Arithmetic, agricultural, and physiological.
Total # of objects in an area.
Ratio of the # of farmers to the amount of arable land.
# of people supported by a unit of area of arable land.
Portion of earth permanently occupied by humans.
Population Cluster: East Asia
Includes Eastern China, Japan, and Taiwan. Contains 1/4 of the world's population, China's population is clustered near fertile valleys and is 1/2 rural.
Population Cluster: South Asia
Includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Contains 1/4 of the world's population, and is mostly rural.
Population Cluster: Southeast Asia
Mostly concentrated on the Island of Java, most of the population is within Indonesia, the fourth most populous country.
Population Clusters: Other
Northeast U.S, Southeast Canada, Nigeria.
One of the 4 most sparsely populated regions in the world, has large desert regions.Usually contains large amount of oil reserves and covers about 20% of the earth.
One of the 4 most sparsely populated regions in the world, receive a very large level of precipitation that may not be suitable for human conditions, along with heat that rapidly depletes nutrients from the soil. May however be good for rice cultivation as it is in some parts of Southeast Asia.
One of the 4 most sparsely populated regions in the world, lands covered in ice; mainly at the poles, permafrost prevents agriculture, few animals can survive, and few humans can live here
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support.
A country's population structure displayed on a bar graph showing the % of the population in 5 year age groups, boys on left, girls on right.
Demographic Transition Model: Stage 1 (Low Growth)
People depended on hunting, very high CBR and CDR, NIR=0
Demographic Transition: Stage 2 (High Growth)
Europe and U.S entered this stage because of the Industrial Revolution, the CBR stays high while the CDR dramatically drops, increasing the NIR. The Medical Revolution diffused to other countries, pushing them into this stage as well.
Demographic Transition: Stage 3 (Decreasing Growth)
A country moves to this stage when the CBR drops sharply, the CDR decreases, and the NIR is modest. Most jobs are then in factories, offices, or shops. Not farms.
Demographic Transition: Stage 4 (Low Growth)
A country is in this is stage when it's CBR and CDR are very low and the NIR reaches 0 and may decrease. (the U.S and Europe are in this stage)
Demographic Transition: Stage 5 (Decline)
A country in this stage has a very low CBR and an increasing CDR, causing the NIR to obtain a negative rate. This is mainly because there are more elderly than children within a population, though some countries enter this stage due to Communism.
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
2 approaches to decrease CBR:
1) Through education and Health Care
2) Through Contraceptions
Claims the population is growing more rapidly than food supply because population increases geometrically and food increases arithmetically.
Many geographers believe Malthus' theory is very pessimistic because they based on a belief that the world's supply is fixed not expanding. Malthus did not foresee the advancement in technology that would help mankind survive or that a larger population would mean more people to produce food.
The concept that the distribution of one phenomenon is related to the location of other phenomenon.
The # of people too young or old to work compared to the # people in their productive years.
Evidenced by a population pyramid showing a higher number of older, or elderly, people in its projection than younger, working-age people. The pyramid is top-heavy.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The # of live births in a year for every 1,000.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
China's Population Policies
Contains the One Child Program, which gives families who decide to have only one child better housing, land, etc. Also gives away free contraceptives and prohibits marriage until a certain age.
India's Population Policies
Used to have sterilization camps that ended in 1976, currently sponsors Family Planning which has emphasized education.
Epidemiologic Transition: Stage 1 (Pestilence and Famine)
Infectious, parasitic diseases where accidents and animal attacks were the main cause. One of the biggest was the Black Plague.
Epidemiologic Transition: Stage 2 (Receding Pandmics) (↓↓CDR)
Improved sanitation, nutrition, and medicine during industrial revolution reduced cdr. Dr. John Snow made handmade gis, finding source of cholera.
Epidemiologic Transition: Stage 3 (Degenerative Diseases) (Moderately Declining CDR)
Decrease of infectious diseases and increase of chronic illnesses that come with age. (cancer, cardiovascular)
Epidemiologic Transition: Stage 4 (Delayed Degenerative Diseases) (Increasing CDR)
Medicine makes cancer spread slowly or eradicate completely, but eating an unhealthy diet and drinking alcohol increases obesity in stage 4 countries.
A disease that occurs over a wide area and affects a large portion of the population.
Diffusion of Aids
Aids diffused by relocation diffusion from Africa to other countries through airports.
Health care in MDC's
Have access to good doctors, modern hospitals, and medicine. Can protect those unable to work, government pays for 70% of healthcare.
Health care in LDC's
Little access to doctors, medicine, immunizations, government pays for less than half.
3 Reasons to migrate
Economic opportunity, cultural freedom, and environmental comfort.
1) Most migrants go short distances within the same country.
2) Long distance migrants go to major centers of economic activity.
Migration to a new location.
Migration out of a location.
Political Push & Pull factors
Push: Slavery, political tension
Pull: Countries with little political violence
Environmental Push & Pull factors
Push: Too little water/food
Pull: Attractive landscapes
Economic Push & Pull factors
Push: Few job opportunities
Pull: Economic prosperity
3 Main eras of US immigration
1) Colonial settlement 17th & 18th centuries
2) European Migration in late 19th century & early 20th
3) Asian & Latin American immigration in late 20th and early 21st centuries
Permanent move from one country to another, either voluntary or forced.
Permanent move within country, either interregional (one region to another) or intraregional (movement within one region).
Interregional migration in the U.S.
Opening of the American west, scattering new settlements onto new land.
Interregional migration in Russia
Soviets forced interregional migration to populate sparse, resource filled areas with workers, later on it was encouraged with rewards, but people still did not want to go because of remoteness.
Interregional migration of Canada
British Columbia & Saskatchewan have most interregional migration & net-out migration is from Manitoban eastward.
Interregional migration of China
100 mill. emigrated from rural to urban areas in search of jobs.
Interregional migration of Brazil
Most people live along coast so the government moved the capital inward to Brasilia to spread the people out.
3 Forms of Interregional Migration
1) Migration from rural to urban areas
2)Urban to suburban areas (for suburban lifestyle)
3) Urban to rural areas
Net migration from urban to rural areas
Migrant chose to move, mostly for economic improvement.
Migrant compelled to move, mostly for political and/or environmental factors.
Wilbur Zelinsky's Migrations Transition Theory
Consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition, is the change in the migration pattern in a society that results from the social and economic changes that also produce the DMT.
Forced to migrate to another country to avoid armed conflict, generalized violence, and violations of human rights.
Large scale emigration by talented people.
Intervening Obstacle (Obstacles with migration and immigration)
An environmental or political feature that hinders migration.
Environmental Obstacle (Obstacles with migration and immigration)
Long, arduous, and expensive journey over land, sea, mountains, or deserts.
Political Obstacle (Obstacles with migration and immigration)
Maximum number of immigrants that can immigrate to the U.S. in one year.
Quotas for 1924
1924: Each country that had natives in the U.S., 2% of their population could immigrate each year (most came from Europe)
Quotas for 1965
1965: Quotas for countries replaced by Hemisphere quotas (170,000 from eastern hemisphere, 120,000 from western)
Quotas for 1978
1978: Global quota of 290,000 was set to max of 20,000 per country
Quotas for 1990
Global quota raised to 700,000
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