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AP Latin Caesar Chapter Summary
Terms in this set (50)
Gaul has three main tribes: the Aquitani, Belgians, and Gaul. All of which differ in laws, languages, and institutions. The Belgians are considered the strongest, because they are far away from civilization and because they are constantly waging war with the Germans (who are at their border). The Helvetii (a smaller tribe) were also considered the strongest and most virtuous due to their constant border battle with the German.
Among the Helvetii was a noble and rich man named Orgetorix- he desired kingship over the Helvetii and made a conspiracy with several other nobles to overthrow the counsols who were in charge of the land. He said that it would be easy to take over the rest of the Helvetii territory because of terrain on all sides that blocked them in. And that they could also expand the territory, as it was too small and their troops where the best.
Orgetorix was picked to confirm peace and friendship with the neighboring states : the Sequani and another he gave his daughter in marriage too Dumnorix who was most loved by the plebians. they hoped and felt assured that they could gain power over all of gaul
The plan of orgetorix was revealed to the other Helvitian leaders. and he was put in chains and declared to be tried. thousands of people were gathered for his trial. before he could be tried, he died- it was suspected that he killed himself
After his death the Helvetii still decided to leave their territory- they burned all their towns and grain (excluding that which they were bringing with them.) They allied themselves with surrounding tribes (Raurici, Tulingi, Latovici, and the Boii) and prepared to depart from their territory
There were to possible paths that they could take. 1) between Mt. Iura and the river Rhodanus, which was narrow and difficult and all the carts would have to be driven in one single file line, it was very easy for few people to stand above them on the mountain and prevent them from passing
2) The easier path was through the province, by the Rhodanus river ( border to the Alborogi who had recently been pacified) The only crossing place was a bridge in Geneva- they thought that the Alborogi would let them pass because they were not in good spirits towards the Romans. They would compel them or force them to let them pass. With these plans set in place they decided to leave 5 days before the Kalends of April (march 26?)
When Caesar heard of their departure, he quickly left Gaul and marched (for a long time- quickly) towards Geneva. He asked for the greatest number of troops possible ( about 1 legion) and ordered them to cut the bridge down. When the Helvetians heard of Caesars arrival they sent ambassadors to caesar to ask (if he is willing) to let them pass peacefully. Caesar, however, remembered that his army had been beaten by the Helvetii and that if they have the resources to make this journey what would stop them from attacking along the way. Nevertheless he heard what the ambassadors had to say and told them that he would need to think about it and would have a decision for them on the Ides of April (april 15)
Caesars troops were being prevented from landing in gauls because the barbarians on the beach would not let them. There ships were only made for deep water anchorage, they were in an unkown place, and they were all oppressed by armor- because of these things they faced the greatest difficulty landing on shore. The Romans (all at once) had to jump down from the ships, and fight the barbarians. The barbarians, however, wore light armor, and were familiar with the place- they moved to known locations and threw spears boldly and spurred their horses. because of this the roman troops did not fight with the same eagerness or zeal as they normally did.
Caesar noticed that his troops were not fighting well and ordered long ships to be sent out
(by oars) and arrange themselves on the exposed flan of the enemy- they would push them back with arrows and sling shots. the barbarians had never seen ships like these and were terrified by them and the motion of the oars that they retreated back a little ways. And while the rest of the men on the boats were hesitating the man carrying the eagle of the 10th legion jumped down and this encouraged troops to jump down also.
The battle was faught fiercly but the roman troops were not able to preserve due to confusion of battle lines. The enemies knew the shallow parts and would attack the romans while they were still in the water. Caesar noticed this, and again sent out longboats filled with soldiers to aid his troops in the water. The troops reached the beach, but were not able to push the barbarians back any farther of take hold of the island.
The enemy having been defeated- sent legates of peace to caesar promising him their hostages and to give him whatever he commanded. They sent commius atrebus with them who had been held hostage. they gave him some hostages and promised others that were coming from greater distances, they returned to the field and began calling their leaders to surrender their states to caesar.
Roman backup was coming on 18 ships, they were seen by the camps, but then a big storm hit them and they were scattered- some sent to far down the coast and others blown back to were they had started. with night approaching they threw their anchors and sought the continent
the night of the storm there was a full moon- this caused great tides which filled up the warships and the cargo ships and the storm damaged them greatly. It was then realized that it was evident that the troops must winter in Gaul because they did not have the means of fixing the ships fast enough before winter.
When the chiefs of Britain realized that the Romans must winter there and the smallness of their army. They decided to rebel- they thought it would be best to keep the troops grain and supply limited and wait for winter. They figured nobody would bring war with them during this season- and with conspiracy being made they began to lead the troops out of the field secretly.
Caesar suspected that a rebellion would happen because of this he began collecting supplies and grain for repairing the ships and stocking up for the winter. They repaired the ships- but lost 12
the 7th legion was sent out to get grain , with no suspicion of the rebellion being held. The men guarding the gates of Caesars camp announced to him that they noticed a larger dust cloud than normal in the part that the 7th legion had gone out. Caesar set out with some troops (leaving 2 legions behind) and saw that the 7th legion had been attacked while harvesting grain and were unprepared because they had put their weapons down in order to harvest. The enemy knew that they would be there because there was only one part of the field was left to harvest and they hid in the woods waiting to ambush them. The troops were thrown into confusion due to uncertain battle lines and they were surrounded with cavalry and war chariots
the enemy rode their war chariots through the troops causing chaos and confusion and breaking the lines apart. then the foot soldiers came and fought with the confused roman soldiers causing much damaged. they showed their skill of daily practice as the charioteers ran down the line and stood on the yoke of the horses while riding through the Romans and being able to return most quickly
When Caesar brought reinforcements the battle halted as the enemy retreated a little. This gave the 7th legion a chance to recover from fear- and Caesar thought that it would not be smart to fight and led his troops back to camp, the Britains also left the field. For several days storms came down heavy and this prevented the troops from fighting. The Britains, during this time, sent out letters in all directions to tell of the smallness of the Roman troops and because of this a large number of troops and cavalry were gathered to dispel the roman troops from Britain forever.
Caesar recognized that every time the enemy was defeated they retreated quickly- because of this he placed 30 horseman (brought by commius atrebus) in front of the camp. Having joined in battle the enemy could not withstand the attack and fled quickly. The Romans followed them as long as long as the could- killing many of them and burning their buildings far and wide before returning to camp.
after being defeated by the last attack, the Britains sent envoys to Caesar to talk about peace.
After the council of the Gauls it was realized that there was a grain shortage due to drought. This led Caesar to be compelled to distribute his troops across Gaul, in about a 100 mile radius. With their winter quarters having been fortified, Caesar decided to stay in Gaul.
Caesar restored power to Tasgetus (of the carnitubis) due to his goodwill and virtue towards Caesar. However his enemies killed him because of his allegiance with Caesar- Caesar feared the falling of this state and sent Lucias Plancus from Belgium into the land of the Carnutes. He ordered lucius to arrest those who had killed him and send them to him. Meanwhile, he was informed that all his troops made it safely to their designated winter camps.
after about 15 days of the troops reaching winter camps a rebellion arose from Ambiorix and Catavolcus, they attacked the Roman winter camps after being influenced by the messages of other rebellions. The romans sent out the spanish cavalry which quickly defeated the barbarians in battle. Then, according to barbarian costum, the shouted that their should be a meeting by which they hope to be able to ease the disagreement over a common matter.
Cotta and Sabinus argue over the fact that reinforcements and a safe winter camp were 2 days march away. Sabinus accuses Cotta of being afraid, while Cotta simply does not believe that Ambiorix will keep his promise of peaceful travels and finds it smarter to stay at the camp and not risk being attacked by the barbarians.
after the meeting of Sabinus and Cotta- Cotta gave up and told Sabinus that there was no saftey in arguement and to do whatever he wanted. It was announced at first light that they would depart. The remaining of the night was consumed by wakefulness as the troops prepared to leave. thus they left the camp tired, in a long line, with a great amount of baggage. This plan was safe because Ambiorix proposed it (Caesar being sarcastic)
The enemy, having noticed the wakefulness in the night, prepared an ambush in a valley on two sides of the forest to attack the Romans. when the Romans marched through the barbarians suddenly attacked they prevented the front troops from leaving the valley and the back troops from helping in battle.
Sabinus was unsure of what to do and was caught in a panic- he frantically tried to re-arrange his troops yet it was done so so timidly that the troops failed to follow him. Cotta however, suspected this would happen, and was not lacking a calm mind or common safety. He performed his duties as a general and a soldier to the best of his ability. It was ordered that they abandon their baggage and form a circle. However this action lesened the hope for the soldiers and encouraged the enemy to keep fighting
The enemy commander's announced that nobody should leave their place on the battle line and that the plunder is theirs if they win. they were equal in fighting, and a great number died on each side. Ambiorix noticed this, and ordered that their weapons should be thrown at a distance so that the romans can not reach them with their spears. they should retreat in whatever part the romans make their attack in and then surround them as they moved to far out.
As the Romans departed from the circle, the enemy backed up- urging them forward. then the flanks of the enemy would surround the back of the Roman's and those retreating would move forward and encircle the small group of Romans. they fought like this for 8 hours. several officers and lieutenants died fighting bravely. and Cotta became severely injured with a slingshot to the face
Sabinus having been disturbed by these things sent his interpreter to Ambiorix to ask him to spare him and hi soldiers. He was told that he could speak to ambiorix and that nothing harmful would happen to him or his troops while he did. Cotta said that he would not go with him and that it was a stupid idea to trust the enemy.
Sabinus ordered the troops closest to him to approach Ambiorix with him, when they neared him they were ordered to lay down their arms- which they did. Ambiorix arranged a long debate and while they were conversing they enemy troops surrounded Sabinus and killed him. The enemy troops shout victory cries and are reinvigorated- the Roman troops begin to head back towards camp in retreat- there Cotta is killed while fighting. The standard bearer throws the eagle into camp and continues to fight until he also is slain. They barley make it till the night and with hope been givin up they commit mass suicide. A few made it through the woods to the winter camp of Titus Labienus and made him more certain of all that happened.
Ambiorix, elated by this victory, immediatly dispatched troops to tell of this victory and encourage other to rebel also. He encourged them to attack the winter camp of Cicero and that he would provide aid in doing so
With multiple tribes being gathered ( ceutronie, gruddi, levaci, plumori, geidumni) and troops combined they rush into the the winter camp of Cicero, who had not yet heard of the rebellion and fate of Cotta and Sabinus. The men were unprepared but rush quickly to arms on the rampart
they scarcely survive the day as the enemy relied on speed, they felt sure in their victory.
Cicero immediatly sent letters to Caesar for help (with great rewards to whoever could make it though the lines of the enemy w/out being intercepted) during the night the Romans built towers (about 120) and defenses with incredibly speed. whatever was needed for the battle the next day was provided for during the night. the weak or wounded were not given a chance to rest, and even Cicero (though sick) did not give himself rest until his soldiers commanded it of him.
The rebelling leaders asked to meet with Cicero and told him that there was no hope of defense coming for him. they told him of the death of Sabinus and showed Ambiorix as proof of these happenings. They said that they wanted the Romans to leave their winter camps and to leave Gaul. Cicero responded that it was not Roman costum to take orders from the enemy and if they wished to speak to Caesar he would help them do so.
Rebuffed from the Hope of Cicero surrendering his winter camp they surrounded the winter camp and began digging a ditch and fortifications as they had learned from the Romans in previous battle. For the rest of the day they made towers the height of the rampart, grappling irons, and protective sheds to cover those approaching the wall- they learned all these techniques from roman captives.
after a week of fighting Cicero's winter camp, great winds arose and the enemy began launching flamming arrows into camp- catching the houses on fire. They began to lead the siege towers forth and try and scale the wall. the courage of the troops was so great that they ignored the flames and their burning possessions and rallied to the ramparts to fight. though the day looked grave, the greater number slain was that of the enemy. little by little the flames were put out and only one siege tower was place against the wall. Those on the wall ( the 3rd legion) retreated a ways and as the enemy came up the wall they goaded them to come further in. With the enemy in confusion at these gestures the Romans attacked them with stones and weapons and dislodged their tower and set it on fire.
2 men (Pullos and Vorenus) were very brave in Cicero's camp and were always competing with eachother for the highest place. Pullos, in order to prove that he was braver, rushed over the ramparts into battle with Vorenus following closely after him. Pullos throws his spear and kills one Gaul, but in doing so his sword belt gets stuck and he is left defenseless. His rival, Vorenus, see's him struggling and comes to his aid. Together they slay many Gauls and begin to push them back, Vorenus, however, slips and falls and it is then Pullos's turn to bring aid to his fellow rival. They both make it safely back to camp, with the highest praises. however, They could not determine who was the better
day after day the Solders of Cicero's camp became more and more tired- and none of the letters dispatched to Caesar would make it as they would get intercepted by the Barbarians. Finally a Gaul (nervii to be exact), (Vertico), who was in camp and loyal to Caesar persuaded his servant with the chance of freedom if he could deliver the letters. he was not suspected because he was a gaul- and was able to pass through the enemy unnoticed.
Ceasar, with Cicero's letters being receive, immediatly sent out letters to other (3) legions requesting their travel to the territory of the Nervii and help support Cicero. He did not think it would be effective to wait for the rest.
Caesar met Crassus in Somarobrovia and put him in charge of the armies possessions. Labienus- in the land of the Triverii- wrote Caesar back and told him that he feared attack if he left his winter quarters, he informs him that Treveri troops are camped 3 miles away from the winter quarters and cannot come to Cicero's aid.
Caesar, disappointed by only 2 legions, continued to move forward with his plan. He bribed a Gaul to deliver a letter to Cicero to tell him they were on their way, the Gaul threw it by spear and it stuck in a tower. The letter was not seen till the 3 day, in which it was read and it brought great joy. on the same day the flames of the approaching legions were seen, and this brought certainty to Cicero's army.
There are 2 classes of men among Gaul: slaves, or those with dignity. Peasants, when pressed with debts, offer themselves as slaves to the nobles in compensation. The Druids take part in sacred activities and their goings about are very secretive. Young men flock to the druids for wisdom for they are the ones who decide on all public or private affairs. Once a person is sentenced to punishment by druids they are considered criminal and are avoided at all costs by all people. They (druids) never fight over who will be the leader, but once the leader dies decides it by majority vote. Annually all the druids gather in the land of the Carnutes to discuss controversies and exchange information.
Druids do not take part in war, nor do they pay tribute for it. Because of this parents and relatives often send their sons to the druids for training because they are held in high regard. the Druids memorize a great number of verses and when they do write things down it is in greek. They rarely write things down as 1) they do not wish to have others read it 2) if it is written down students will not memorize it. hey belive that souls pass on after death, they study the stars, the nations, and the powers of the gods which they pass all to the younger generation.
The other class is of the knights. they are generally engaged in war all the time, (before the arrival of Caesar there were more wars). They are distinguished by birth and resources and have the greatest number of slaves and lots of influence.
The gauls are very religious- they are constantly fighting in wars and are inflicted by disease- because of this they are constantly having the druids sacrifice men and hostages to the gods. they create large wicker structures and fill them with men, they set them on fire to please the gods. criminals are sacrificed instead of the innocent because it pleased the gods more.
They worship the god mercury the most, who they believe blesses arts, marches, and trades. then they worship Apollo, mars, Jupiter, and minerva. Apollo heals, mars fights, jupiter holds command of the heavens, and minerva is arts. they place all their booties of war in great piles to honor the gods and rarely does anyone dare to hide any of their treasure from the gods.
The Gauls believe that, through the druids, they are descended from Hades (Dis) . because of this they count their days not by the sun but by the nights. it is their custom to not have their children approach them till they are old enough to go to war, and it is considered shameful for a boy to be seen by his father in public.
In this culture the Doweries payed by husbands are also matched by the womans father. Because of this who ever dies last will get all the profits of the marraige (husband or father). If the husband dies in a mysterious way, the wives are held on trial and are often executed and burned with the rest of their belongings post husbands death. funerals are great and costly in gaul, and everything of importance is burned with the body.
In Gaul if a person hears a bad rumor or report of his neighbor he should not go tell others but report them to the magistrate, because it has been learned that inexperienced men are alarmed by rumors and often act on them rashly. therefore, these affairs are hidden from the public till they are covered in council and decided upon.
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