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Logical Fallacies DEFINITIONS (Molitor)
Terms in this set (19)
This is an
attack on the character
of a person rather than his or her opinions or arguments.
Appeal to Authority or Tradition
The bolstering of an argument based on
tracing its inception to a prominent, respected, or revered figure
or by tracing it to a figure that has no ties to the idea being argued. Appeals to authority can also be institutional and suggest that because something has followed a pattern for a long time, it should continue that example.
The Texas Sharpshooter
cherry-picking of a data cluster
to suit an argument, or a found pattern to fit a presumption.
This is a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by
reducing it to only two sides or choices
This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are
rushing to a conclusion
before you have ll the relevant facts.
This is a diversionary tactic that
avoids the key issues
, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them.
This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B,C,..., X, Y, Z, will happen, too, basically
equating A and Z
. So, if we don't want Z to occur A must not be allowed to occur either.
misrepresent someone's argument to make it easier to attack
. By exaggerating, misrepresenting, or just completely fabricating someone's argument, it's much easier to present your own position as being reasonable.
Incorrectly labeling one thing as the cause of another thing
on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence or using evidence that conflicts with established higher-level truths or theories.
This suggests that the
popularity of an idea is a reason for accepting it as true
. The fact that an idea is suddenly attracting adherents is posed as a reason to join in with the trend.
fear, not based evidence or reason, is being used as the primary motivator
to get others to accept an idea, proposition, or conclusion.
usage of personal experience
or an isolated example instead of a sound argument or compelling evidence.
When the conclusion does not follow from the premises. In more informal reasoning, it can be when
what is presented as evidence or reason is irrelevant
or adds very little support to the conclusion.
Tu quoque (Appeal to Hypocrisy)
The avoidance of having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser--
answering a criticism with a criticism
This is an emotional appeal that
speaks to positive or negative concepts rather than the real issue at hand
A conclusion is based on an argument that the
origins of a person, idea, word, institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or worth
Argument Ad Nauseum (Appeal by repetition)
Repeating an argument
or a premise over and over again in place of better supporting evidence.
Burden of Proof
responsibility lies with someone who is making a claim
and is not upon anyone else to disprove.
restates the argument
rather than actually proving it.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Logical Fallacies EXAMPLES (Molitor)
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