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We the people (unit one study guide)
Terms in this set (37)
1) english philosopher
3) believed that people had right to life, liberty, and property (natural rights)
4) a ruler has power as long as he/she wa has consent of government
5) ruler could not deny peoples basic / natural rights
The men and women who lived in America during the colonial period who influenced the creation of our government
55 MEN who attended the convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and wrote the constitution
The rights to life, liberty, and property, we have these rights because we are human beings, we are born with them.
What is the purpose of government according to the natural rights philosophers?
The main purpose of government was to protect the peoples natural rights of life, liberty, and property. Kings should not have absolute power where they would be able to deprive people of their natural rights.
Where does government get its right to govern, according to the natural rights philosophers?
Citizens consent to follow the laws of government in exchange for the protection that their natural rights would not be taken away (Social compact / contract)
Power without limits, like a king, should not be able to deprive people of their natural rights (John locke)
State of Nature
Life with no government or law. In a state of nature, your natural rights might be taken away.
social contract / compact
To agree, to give up some of their freedom in exchange for protection and security
Social compact / Social contract
An agreement between people to create a government to rule and protect their natural rights. They consent to obey the laws created by the government
An agreement between the pilgrims before they landed in plymouth, they agreed to the formation of a government and to obey it's laws, this is called Social contract
The government of rome
1) citizens have the power to govern
2) citizens give power to leaders to serve their interests
3) representatives are responsible for promoting common welfare (good of community)
good of community
citizens and leaders:
1) live modest lives
2) work hard
3) put common welfare above their own interest
hard working farmer, Rome, 460 bc, lead roman army to victory, was offered to become dictator but returned to life as citizen, valued being a citizen more than fame and power... Model of civic virtue
framework for a government, tells how government is organized and run
when the powers of the person or group running the government are limited
autocratic, dictatorial government
government of unlimited power (constitution provides for unlimited use of power, limits the power, but is not enforced)
higher law (need to know 3)
must be obeyed by the people running the government
1) right to life liberty and property
2) government responsibility to protect those rights (2)
3) limits on how people in government can use their powers
4) principle of private domain
5) change only with widespread consent
area of life that is no business in government
What is a constitution? what can you learn about a nations government in their constitution?
A constitution is a piece of framework that limits the governments powers. You can learn the citizens rights, how resources are distributed, and how conflicts are handled from / how the government is ordered and run
Explain the differences between constitutional governments and autocratic / dictatorial governments
Constitutional government limits the powers of the person / group running it. A dictatorial government does not limit these powers or is limited but not enforced
Montesquieu (separate balances and checks)
1) best way to ensure the government protects natural rights is to limit its powers between different branches
2) dividing powers between different branches meant no 1 authority would have too much power
3) referred to this as a republican government and system of checks and balances
Each branch of government represents the difference of each group in society
balance the powers (montesquieu)
among the branches so that no one branch would have so much power that it could control the others
What was the purpose of balancing the powers among different groups in the government, why should each group be given ways to check the power of the other groups?
no single branch could control the entire government if it's powers were separated, balanced, and checked
no single branch could use the government for its own selfish purpose
In constitutional governments, one branch is often checked by the other branches, Why?
Branches check each other to make sure that they are balanced. An example of this is the supreme court checking the congress.
What branches do many modern constitutional governments have? what are the functions of each branch?
1) the legislative branch: has the power to make laws
2) the executive branch: has the power to carry out and enforce new laws
3) the judicial branch: has the power to manage conflicts via the application of laws...interpret laws
lords and ladies who held titles such as earl, duke, etc... worked for the king and made it possible for him to control all of england
applied all legal ideas to english citizens
agreement between king john and the nobles, stated that the nobles would obey the king only as long as he protected their rights
What were some of the basic ideas included in the Magna Carta
1) governments are based on an agreement between the ruler and the people to be ruled (i.e. the king and nobility), most people were not a part of the agreement
2) includes the idea of the rule of law (if either side breaks the contract, it is no longer valid, king cannot take away power of noble, if king broke the laws, nobles can overthrow him
magna carta 1215
Was an important step in protecting rights of people and limiting power of government.
1) made in 1215
2) nobles forced king john to sign it
3) only protected a small amount of people
4) showed that monarchs powers could be limited
representative government (king henry and england)
king henry created a council called parliament made up of house of lords (nobility) and house of commons.
parliament won a struggle with the kings in 1689 when the english bill of rights was adopted. Which parts of the english bill of rights do you think the framers might have included in our constitution
Not allowed to:
1) collect taxes without consent
2) interfere with right to free speech and debate
3) require excessive bail / cruel punishment to those accused
new council created to advise the monarch
1) formed in 1258
2) nobles forced king henry to create a council called parliament to advise the monarch.
3) made of house of commons and house of lords
4) separation of powers
english bill of rights forbids king or queen to :
1) collect taxes without consent
2) interfere with right to free speech
3) maintain an army in times of peace
4) require excessive bail or cruel punishment
5) declare that laws made by parliament should not be obeyed
This set is often in folders with...
We The People Key Concepts (All)
We the People- Unit one
We the People Unit 2 Terms
AP GOV CHAPTER 1
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