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Terms in this set (52)
Sugar Act 1764
British was in serious financial debt after the French & Indian War so they levied (collected) a sugar tax on the colonies to help pay for the way. Colonists protested this saying it was "taxation w/o representation" =>Boston merchants started a boycott of British goods.
Quartering Act 1765
required colonial government to pay for supplies for British troops and to quarter these troops in barracks, inns, and taverns=>colonists in New York violently refused to comply
Stamp Act 1765
required legal papers, college degrees, policies, newspapers, and playing cards to carry a tax stamp=>was later repealed
Townshend Act 1767
taxes were on most things used by colonists (paper, tea, glass, lead, paint). Colonists objected and boycotted British luxury items =>Sam Adams of Boston issued the "Circular Letter" to denounce taxation and coordinate reaction among the colonies.
Boston Massacre 1770
British troops fired on colonial protesters, killing 5. The troops were defended in court by patriots including John Adams, leading to an acquittal of most of the soldiers by a Boston jury. Townshend Acts repealed, and all duties on imports into the colonies were eliminated except for tea.
Lexington & Concord 1775
The first shots of the Revolutionary War taken place outside of Boston, George Washington was appointed commander of the colonial army
wrote Common Sense in 1776 which highlighted the need for American independence
July 4, 1776
Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence authored by Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence; 3rd President of the U.S.
Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.
the political document that dissolved the colonial ties between the United States and Britain
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
France joined the war as allies.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War
The Articles of Confederation
established the first government for U.S.
America's first constitution which provided for a new central government with limited powers
approve, confirm, consent
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
proved too weak, problems became clear=>did not bind states together in a true union, no centralized control over trade, 13 different currencies continue to exist
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States. Author of the Bill of Rights.
What did the new Constitution include?
Separation of powers- executive along w/ legislative and judicial brances
checks & balances
power to veto over legislation; appointment of federal judges, ambassadors, and other government officials (PRESIDENT)
override presidential vetos; approve presidential appointments; impeachment of president & federal judges (Congress)
legislative oversight; independence guaranteed through lifetime appointments (Supreme Court)
Power of Congress
power to tax, declare war, make treaties, regulate trade, distribute a single currency, impose tariffs, establish immigration laws
taxes on imported goods
The Federalist Papers
a series of essays written to defend the Constitution; written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison in support of ratification
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Those who favor a stronger national government; centralized authority in the nation, conservative, pro-england, constitutional monarchy, favored the rich/wealthy
those who favor less government and de-centralized authority to the state, pro-france, revolutionary, republicanism, political philosophy=>worth of the individual.
vast territory between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, purchased from France in 1803 that doubled the size of the U.S. for $15 million
How did American colonists respond to the passage of the Townshend Acts of 1768, which aimed to raise revenue by imposing taxes on glass, lead, paint, and tea?
They formed committees of correspondence to rally opposition to British policies and educate colonists about their rights
The committees would contact townspeople and update them on any happenings at town meetings, rallying opposition among the colonists.
They organized boycotts of British goods, and merchants signed nonimportation agreements vowing not to buy or sell British goods
By boycotting British goods, colonists applied pressure to Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts.
The Treaty of Paris in 1763
granted all of North America east of the Mississippi to the British Empire.
It effectively ended the military threat of the French on the east coast.
ended the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty officially ended the Seven Years' War, but it did not end British violence against Native American tribes.
Why did Native American tribes join together against the British in the rebellion known as Pontiac's Uprising (1763-1766) following the Seven Years' War?
Unlike the French, the British did not maintain trade relations with Native Americans, and refused to sell them the weapons and ammunition they needed to hunt
The French traded freely with the native tribes and provided them with ample hunting supplies.
They objected to the British taking over territory that had been ceded by the French, claiming that the French had no right to give away Native American lands
Since the French who previously lived there respected Native American traditions, when the English failed to do the same, the Native Americans rose up against them.
Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years' War?
The British Empire accrued a large amount of debt
The British Empire went into over 122 million pounds of debt!
The British Empire gained control of North America east of the Mississippi River
The British secured most of France's possessions in the New World and became the primary imperial power in the northeast of the modern United States.
The British Empire's Proclamation of 1763 prohibited white settlers from crossing over the Appalachian mountains into territory reserved for Native Americans. White settlers responded by
ignoring the Proclamation Line and protesting against the British Empire's attempt to contain westward migration.
The Proclamation Line served the political purpose of quelling Pontiac's Rebellion, but its boundary did not last.
British Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765. The Act levied a tax on all printed material in the American colonies, leading to widespread protests. Why did the American colonists object to the Stamp Act?
They believed that Parliament had no right to tax them as they had no direct representation in that legislative body
No taxation without representation! The Stamp Act popularized this phrase within the colonies
In response to the Boston Tea Party, when American colonists dumped more than ten thousand pounds' worth of tea into Boston Harbor to protest British taxation policies, Parliament
passed the Coercive Acts (also called the Intolerable Acts), a series of punitive measures aimed at subduing the Massachusetts colony.
The Coercive Acts levied fines for the destroyed tea, sent British troops to Boston, and rewrote the colonial charter of Massachusetts, giving broadly expanded powers to the royally-appointed governor.
a series of acts to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party AKA The Intolerable Acts
Sons of Liberty
members of a secret society that rebelled against the British Empire through protests that were often violent and destructive.
The Sons of Liberty boarded British ships with thousands of pounds of East India Company tea and dumped nearly 350 crates into the harbor in protest of taxation without representation.
Parliament passed the Coercive Acts (also called the Intolerable Acts) intending to isolate the "troublemakers" in Boston from the other colonies, but their gambit backfired. Why?
The Acts helped to unify the American colonies, who sent delegates to the First Continental Congress to coordinate a response to the British empire.
The perceived unfairness of these new Acts incited more revolutionary spirit in the colonists.
At the First Continental Congress in 1774, delegates from each colony met in Philadelphia to
coordinate a unified colonial response to the Coercive Acts.
The Coercive Acts angered colonists throughout the North American colonies, and the First Continental Congress gave them a way to deliver one cohesive message through the Declaration of Colonial Rights and Grievances.
The minute men, American Revolutionary War soldiers so named for their willingness to fight at a moment's notice, reflected
Choose 1 answer:
colonial leaders' preference for local and state militias over a standing army in times of peace, as codified in the Articles of Confederation.
The militias could be called upon to fight at very short notice.
Which of the following was an action taken by colonial representatives at the Second Continental Congress
declaring independence from the British Empire.
The Second Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
a 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to high taxes
Shays' Rebellion, an uprising of disgruntled farmers and Revolutionary War veterans in Massachusetts, was a major factor leading to
The creation of a stronger central government that would better be able to handle military and economic problems than the Articles of Confederation.
The rebellion exposed the weakness of the central government under the Articles of Confederation, and led many--including George Washington--to call for the strengthening of the federal government.
The Articles of Confederation, the first governmental structure of the United States, delegated very little power to the central government.
Which of the following could the central government do under the Articles of Confederation?
The Articles of Confederation granted the states the power to declare war against another country collectively .
At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, delegates from 12 states debated
how to organize a central government that was sufficiently powerful while maintaining a balance of power between states.
The Constitutional Convention took four whole months of debate to agree on a system that would achieve this balance!
James Madison drafted one possible plan for a new American legislature, known as the Virginia Plan. The Virginia Plan called for
a bicameral legislature in which representation in Congress would be based on population, benefitting larger states
Since both houses would receive a number of representatives proportional to that state's' population, delegates from states with larger populations preferred the Virginia Plan.
A plan at the constitutional convention to base representation in the legislature on population.
The New Jersey Plan provided an alternate approach to Madison's Virginia Plan. The New Jersey Plan called for
a unicameral legislature with one vote for each state, giving equal representation to large and small states
Since this plan allocated representatives to each state equally, delegates from small states favored this plan.
The New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan were eventually brought together in the Connecticut Compromise, which created
a bicameral legislature, featuring a lower house based on population and an upper house where each state had two votes.
In this compromise, smaller states received two-votes-per-state in the Senate, while larger states received representation proportional to population in the House of Representatives.
Legislative branch-2 houses-one based on population, one based on equal representation
Delegates from Southern states demanded that the Framers of the Constitution agree to the Three-Fifths Compromise, which stipulated that
Three-fifths of the enslaved population of a state would be counted toward a state's population, thereby boosting the power of slave states in the House of Representatives
The Three-Fifths Compromise received a clause of the US Constitution, condoning slavery within the body of the Constitution without ever writing in the word "slave."
The Bill of Rights is the name given to the first ten Amendments to the Constitution. Why was it adopted?
To enumerate explicit protections for individual rights and civil liberties
The Bill of Rights was added in order to convince individual states to ratify the Constitution.
To allay concerns that the creation of a more powerful central government lead to tyranny
Many colonists were hesitant to ratify the Constitution without provisions that ensured the country safe from tyranny.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence nearly 10 years after unrest with Britain a year after Lexington and Concord (first shots)...so why did the Second Continental Congress meet at this time?
They needed help and assistance from France who was a long time enemy of Britain; Thomas Jefferson wasn't necessarily declaring, but explaining why the colonies were separating from Britain with the hope they will get the help and sympathy from the international community.
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