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Choose the true statement about fetal hemoglobin.
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin.
Which of the following is true regarding the extrinsic pathway of blood clotting?
The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can develop when an Rh+ mother is pregnant with an Rh- child.
Which of the following shows the correct sequence of hemostasis from start to end?
Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation.
The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:
Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused by:
Rh incompatibility between an Rh- mother and an Rh+ child during pregnancy.
Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have which type of anemia?
Which of the following facts has the greatest effect on making RBCs very effecient oxygen transporters?
They generated ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.
Which of the following types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms, destroys antibody complexes, and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy?
The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the:
Pernicious anemia may result from:
The lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.
Caused by an excess blood flow to the injured area; helps dilute harmful substances and brings in excess oxygen.
Disease that leads to drooping facial muscles because the neuromuscular junctions are damaged.
Chemicals released from injured tissues stimulate rapid proliferation and release of cells.
Tissue factor (TFIII) or tissue thromoplastin.
Triggers the 'shortcut' extrinsic mechanism that bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway.
Produced by the liver and exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissues.
Iron deficiency anemia.
Can result from inadequate intake of iron containing foods and impaired iron absorption.
Results from destruction or inhibition of the red marrow by certain bacterial toxins, drugs, and ionizing radiation.
Sickle cell anemia.
Caused by abnormal hemoglobin from a change in DNA which results in a change in one of the 287 amino acids.
Caused by defective synthesis of heme groups and production of nonfunctional hemoglobin molecules.
Which of the following is characteristic of a secondary immune response?
A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response.
A graft that is transplanted from one person to a genetically identical individual is an example of a:
___ is the property of lymphocytes that prevents them from attacking the body's own cells.
Which of the following is not a property of interferons (IFNs)?
IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies.
Severe combined immundeficiency syndrome (SCID).
Genetic defect resulting in a shortage of B and/or T cells.
Which type of cell wanders through the deep cortex of lymph nodes searching for dendritic cells that are presenting their antigens?
Lymphoid tissue associated with mucosal membrane, including the tonsils, Peyer's patches, and select areas of the respiratory system, are collectively known as ___.
Antibodies that are free in the extracellular fluid are known as:
Immunoglobulins or gamma globulins.
Vaccinations allow our bodies to generate a ___ immune response when we encounter the antigen.
Antimicrobial proteins known as ___, are produced by infected body cells in order to block viral reproduction in neighboring uninfected cells.
Antibodies in breast milk allow the passive transfer of immunity from mother to baby. Which class of antibody is transferred in breast milk?
Antigen-presenting cells only express co-stimulatory molecules when they have been signaled by the ___________ defense mechanism.
The process of opsonization involves coating bacteria to aid phagocytes in ingesting these pathogens
Natural killer cells recognize abnormal (e.g. cancerous) cells by their absence of "self" proteins on their surfaces
B cells usually encounter their specific antigens in the outer cortex of the lymph node. What happens when the B cell encounters the antigen?
The antigen is brought into the B cell and the peptide
There are two types of helper T cells. Which type secretes interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, which promote B cell activation?
What portion of the antibody determines whether an antibody can activate complement proteins or act as an opsonin?
The stem (constant region).
As the B cells begin dividing during the primary immune response, they begin secreting IgM or form germinal centers in the follicle. Which of the following events results in the cells producing IgG, IgA, or IgE antibodies?
Antibody class switching
The surface of a B cell is studded with 10,000-100,000 lymphatic antigen receptors that can bind optimally with:
Only one antigenic determinant.
The source of foreign antigens for class II MHC proteins come from _____________ sources.
exogenous (phagocytized extracellular pathogens)
Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system
To transport hormones to their target organs
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