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PSYC 4404 Final Review: Self-Focused Attention and Negative Affect
Terms in this set (37)
focus, valence, context
Characteristics of self-focused attention include ___________, ___________, and ___________.
uncontrollable; negative, repetitive
Rumination involves ___________ self-focus on one's negative mood. It is ___________, always in reference to the self, and ___________.
The focus component of self-focused attention involves ___________: the tendency to self-focus on one's negative mood.
The ___________ component of SFA refers to the tendency for focus on negative self-aspects being associated with higher negative affect. Focus on positive self-aspects is related to lower negative affect.
Focus on negative self-aspects is associated with ___________ negative affect.
Focus on positive self-aspects is related to ___________ negative affect.
The ___________ component of SFA refers to the fact that SFA after negative events is more associated with negative affect. Self-focus after positive events, however, is unrelated to negative affect.
SFA after negative events is ___________ associated with negative affect. Self-focus after positive events, however, is ___________ to negative affect.
depression, anxiety, negative mood
All three forms of negative affect (___________, ___________, and ___________ ___________) are significantly related to SFA.
Depression is ___________ associated with SFA than overall anxiety.
Generalized anxiety disorder is ___________ associated with SFA than is overall anxiety.
Overall negative affect is more strongly associated with ___________ self-focus.
depression; social anxiety
Private self-focus is more strongly related to ___________, whereas public self-focus is more strongly related to ___________ ___________.
___________ self-focus is more strongly related to depression, whereas ___________ self-focus is more strongly related to social anxiety.
The most effective way to stop ruminating is use of __________. It interferes with inner speech, therefore reducing rumination.
Alcohol interferes with ___________ ___________, which plays a large role in rumination, thus reducing rumination.
Both sexes ruminate, but ___________ tend to do so a bit more. This may be due to feeling that their emotions are inherently due to their gender, and that rumination therefore cannot be changed.
Females may ruminate more due to the feeling that their emotions are inherently due to their ___________, and that rumination therefore cannot be changed.
An awareness of self-referent, internally generated information that stands in contrast to awareness of externally generated information derived through sensory receptors.
self-evaluation; decrease discrepancy
Duval & Wicklund (1872) hypothesize that attention focused on the self leads to ___________-___________, in which the individual attempts to either ___________ ___________ between their ideal and real standards or avoid further self-focus.
According to Carver & Scheier, negative affect is experienced as a result of the individual's ___________ that the likelihood of attaining the standard is ___________.
prolong; enhance; cognitive
Nolen-Hoeksema proposes that ruminative responses ___________ depression, in that they ___________ the effects of pre-existing negative mood on ___________ processes, preventing individuals from taking action and coping.
An excessive, sustained, and inflexible attention to internal states; coined as the dysfunctional component of maladaptive self-focusing.
excessive, sustained, inflexible
The states of self-absorption (___________, ___________, ___________) are also central to many disorders.
inflexibility; external focus
___________ is what renders self-focus dysfunctional, in that it is an inability to shift to ___________ ___________ when the situation warrants it.
Different types of ___________-___________ explain different types of mental disorders.
According to Ingram's meta-construct model of self-absorption, specific self-focused ___________ or ___________ characterize the different disorders.
process, content; unproductive
Rumination differs from other types of self-focus in both ___________ and ___________. It is repetitive and ___________, and is thought to interfere with active problem-focused coping.
A type of self-focus which reflects autonomous, egocentric goals.
A type of self-focus which does not require one to consider others' reactions and perceptions.
A type of self-focus which pertains to aspects of behavior in which the needs, desires, or reactions of others are acknowledged and taken into account.
For anxiety, it has been suggested that threatening situations lead to ___________ -___________ and that individuals' perceptions that they cannot cope with such situations lead to ___________ behavior and further anxiety.
ideal, actual; ought, actual
Higgins's self-discrepancy theory states that a discrepancy between one's ___________ and ___________ self is related to depression, whereas discrepancy between ___________ self and ___________ self is associated with anxiety.
Higgins's self-discrepancy theory states that a discrepancy between ought self and actual self is associated with ___________, whereas discrepancy between one's ideal and actual self is related to ___________.
placing a mirror
The most common procedure for manipulating self-focus is ___________ ___________ ___________ in front of participants.
Self-focus correlates most strongly with negative affect among ___________ samples.
___________ self-focus is more strongly related to negative affect than other types.
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