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John Adams

said, "The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the peoplej was the real American Revolution."

John Quincy Adams

secretary of state under Monroe; deftly negotiated a number of treaties that fixed U.S. borders, opened new territories, and acquired Florida from the Spanish

Jane Addams

founded Hull House

American Antislavery Society

n abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings

American Federation of Labor

only skilled workers, led by Gompers, focused on "bread and butter" issues

American Protective Association

an American anti-Catholic society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded on March 13, 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa

Susan B. Anthony

led the fight for women's suffrage, convincing Congress to introduce a suffrage amendment to the Consitution

Antimasonic Party

a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party

Chester Arthur

president during Gilded Age

Elizabeth Blackwell

an abolitionist, women's rights activist, and the first female doctor in the United States

John Brown

led a raid on a proslavery camp, murdering five; raided Harper's Ferry

William Jennings Bryan

backed by Populists in 1896 presidential election

Jame Buchanan

had been out of the country for 4 years when elected president in 1856

Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker

Civil Service Commission

created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees

Committees of Correspondence

groups throughout the colonies that traded ideas and apprised each other of the political mood

Coxey's Army

a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time

Eugene V. Debs

led Socialists

Thomas A. Edison


Emerson and Thoreau


Millard Fillmore

the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office

First Continental Congress

all colonies except Georgia attended in 1774

Free-Soil Party

a regional, single-issue party devoted to the goals of the Wilmot Proviso

Robert Fulton

inventor of steamboat

James Garfield

president during Gilded Age

Citizen Edmond Genet

visited America to seek its assistance in the French Revolution

George III

new kin, felt that the colonists should help pay the debt from the Seven Years' War

Samuel Gompers

led the AFL, concentrated on "bread and butter" issues

The Grange movement

cooperatives, with the purpose of allowing farmers to buy machinery and sell crops as a group and, therefore, reap the benefits of economies of scale

Ulysses S. Grant

corrupt administration

Greenback Party

The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war

Benjamin Harrison

president during Gilded Age

William Henry Harrison

the first Whig president

Rutherford B. Hayes

elected president in 1876

William Randolph Hearst

helped newspaper industry grow with yellow journalism

Andrew Jackson

popular president who believed in universal manhood suffrage

Thomas Jefferson

wrote the Declaration of Independence; Secretary of State under Washington

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's vice-president; opposed secession and strongly supported Lincoln during his first term

Knights of Labor

one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories

Know-Nothing (American) Party

met privately and remained secretive about their political agenda, rallied around a single issue: hatred of foreigners

Ku Klux Klan

targeted those who supported Reconstruction; it attacked and often murdered scalawags, black and white Republican leaders, community activists, and teachers

Liberty Party

The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society due to grievances with William Lloyd Garrison's leadership

Abraham Lincoln

40% of popular vote; over 50% of electoral vote

Alfred Thayer Mahan (author, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History)

His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I

Horace Mann

instrumental in pushing for public education and education reform in general

William McKinley

pro-business, his assassination made Theodore Roosevelt president

James Monroe

president who wanted Europe to stay out of the Western Hemisphere

Mormon Church

founded by Joseph Smith, moved to Salt Lake City

National Labor Union

first national labor federation in the United States

Thomas Paine

English printer who advocated colonial independence and argued for the merits of republicanism over monarchy

Franklin Pierce

moderate, elected president after publishing of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

James Polk

a Democrat expansionist who ran against Henry Clay in 1844: "54 40 or fight", Mexican-American War

Populist Party/Platform

farmers' movement: government ownership of railroads and telegraphs, a graduated income tax, direct election of U.S. senators, and shorter workdays

Joseph Pulitzer

helped newspaper industry grow with yellow journalism

Queen Liluokalani/Hawaii

the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii; her government was overthrown by the U.S.

Republican Party

dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories, but they championed a wider range of issues, including the further development of national roads, more liberal land distribution in the West, and increased protective tariffs

Rough Riders

the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War

Second Continental Congress

convened just weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord. It prepared for war by establishing a Continental Army, printing money, and creating government offices to supervise policy.

Seventh Day Adventist Church

a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the "seventh day" of the week, as the Sabbath; established in 1863 with Ellen G. White as one of its founders


utopian group that splintered from the Quakers, believed that they and all other churches had grown too interested in this world and neglectful of their afterlives; no sex

Sons of Liberty

group who protested the Stamp Act

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

one of the leader's of the women's rights movement

Zachary Taylor

Whig military hero, elected president

Frederick Jackson Turner (author of The Significance of the Frontier in American History)

announced that the frontier was gone, and with it the first period of American history

Nat Turner

led violent slave uprising, caused passage of black codes

"Boss" Tweed

an American politician who was convicted for stealing over 100 million dollars from New York City taxpayers through political corruption; head on Tammany Hall

Martin Van Buren

became president as the country was entering the Panic of 1837; made the situation worse by continuing Jackson's policy of favoring hard currency

Booker T. Washington

promoted economic independence as the means by which blacks could improve their lot

George Washington

led a colonial contingent that attacked a French outpost and lost badly, but welcomed as a hero in Virginia; first president

Whig Party

a loose coalition that shared one thing in common: opposition to one or more of the Democrats' policies

Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

spearheaded the crusade for prohibition

Workingmen's Party

the first Marxist-influenced political party in the United States

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