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said, "The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the peoplej was the real American Revolution."
John Quincy Adams
secretary of state under Monroe; deftly negotiated a number of treaties that fixed U.S. borders, opened new territories, and acquired Florida from the Spanish
American Antislavery Society
n abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings
American Federation of Labor
only skilled workers, led by Gompers, focused on "bread and butter" issues
American Protective Association
an American anti-Catholic society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded on March 13, 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa
Susan B. Anthony
led the fight for women's suffrage, convincing Congress to introduce a suffrage amendment to the Consitution
a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party
an abolitionist, women's rights activist, and the first female doctor in the United States
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce
the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker
Civil Service Commission
created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees
Committees of Correspondence
groups throughout the colonies that traded ideas and apprised each other of the political mood
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time
the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office
The Grange movement
cooperatives, with the purpose of allowing farmers to buy machinery and sell crops as a group and, therefore, reap the benefits of economies of scale
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
Lincoln's vice-president; opposed secession and strongly supported Lincoln during his first term
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Know-Nothing (American) Party
met privately and remained secretive about their political agenda, rallied around a single issue: hatred of foreigners
Ku Klux Klan
targeted those who supported Reconstruction; it attacked and often murdered scalawags, black and white Republican leaders, community activists, and teachers
The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society due to grievances with William Lloyd Garrison's leadership
Alfred Thayer Mahan (author, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History)
His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I
English printer who advocated colonial independence and argued for the merits of republicanism over monarchy
a Democrat expansionist who ran against Henry Clay in 1844: "54 40 or fight", Mexican-American War
farmers' movement: government ownership of railroads and telegraphs, a graduated income tax, direct election of U.S. senators, and shorter workdays
the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii; her government was overthrown by the U.S.
dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories, but they championed a wider range of issues, including the further development of national roads, more liberal land distribution in the West, and increased protective tariffs
the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War
Second Continental Congress
convened just weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord. It prepared for war by establishing a Continental Army, printing money, and creating government offices to supervise policy.
Seventh Day Adventist Church
a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the "seventh day" of the week, as the Sabbath; established in 1863 with Ellen G. White as one of its founders
utopian group that splintered from the Quakers, believed that they and all other churches had grown too interested in this world and neglectful of their afterlives; no sex
Frederick Jackson Turner (author of The Significance of the Frontier in American History)
announced that the frontier was gone, and with it the first period of American history
an American politician who was convicted for stealing over 100 million dollars from New York City taxpayers through political corruption; head on Tammany Hall
Martin Van Buren
became president as the country was entering the Panic of 1837; made the situation worse by continuing Jackson's policy of favoring hard currency
Booker T. Washington
promoted economic independence as the means by which blacks could improve their lot
led a colonial contingent that attacked a French outpost and lost badly, but welcomed as a hero in Virginia; first president
a loose coalition that shared one thing in common: opposition to one or more of the Democrats' policies
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