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72 terms

AP U.S. History People

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John Adams
said, "The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the peoplej was the real American Revolution."
John Quincy Adams
secretary of state under Monroe; deftly negotiated a number of treaties that fixed U.S. borders, opened new territories, and acquired Florida from the Spanish
Jane Addams
founded Hull House
American Antislavery Society
n abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings
American Federation of Labor
only skilled workers, led by Gompers, focused on "bread and butter" issues
American Protective Association
an American anti-Catholic society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded on March 13, 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa
Susan B. Anthony
led the fight for women's suffrage, convincing Congress to introduce a suffrage amendment to the Consitution
Antimasonic Party
a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party
Chester Arthur
president during Gilded Age
Elizabeth Blackwell
an abolitionist, women's rights activist, and the first female doctor in the United States
John Brown
led a raid on a proslavery camp, murdering five; raided Harper's Ferry
William Jennings Bryan
backed by Populists in 1896 presidential election
Jame Buchanan
had been out of the country for 4 years when elected president in 1856
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce
the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker
Civil Service Commission
created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees
Committees of Correspondence
groups throughout the colonies that traded ideas and apprised each other of the political mood
Coxey's Army
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time
Eugene V. Debs
led Socialists
Thomas A. Edison
inventor
Emerson and Thoreau
transcendentalists
Millard Fillmore
the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office
First Continental Congress
all colonies except Georgia attended in 1774
Free-Soil Party
a regional, single-issue party devoted to the goals of the Wilmot Proviso
Robert Fulton
inventor of steamboat
James Garfield
president during Gilded Age
Citizen Edmond Genet
visited America to seek its assistance in the French Revolution
George III
new kin, felt that the colonists should help pay the debt from the Seven Years' War
Samuel Gompers
led the AFL, concentrated on "bread and butter" issues
The Grange movement
cooperatives, with the purpose of allowing farmers to buy machinery and sell crops as a group and, therefore, reap the benefits of economies of scale
Ulysses S. Grant
corrupt administration
Greenback Party
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
Benjamin Harrison
president during Gilded Age
William Henry Harrison
the first Whig president
Rutherford B. Hayes
elected president in 1876
William Randolph Hearst
helped newspaper industry grow with yellow journalism
Andrew Jackson
popular president who believed in universal manhood suffrage
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the Declaration of Independence; Secretary of State under Washington
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's vice-president; opposed secession and strongly supported Lincoln during his first term
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Know-Nothing (American) Party
met privately and remained secretive about their political agenda, rallied around a single issue: hatred of foreigners
Ku Klux Klan
targeted those who supported Reconstruction; it attacked and often murdered scalawags, black and white Republican leaders, community activists, and teachers
Liberty Party
The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society due to grievances with William Lloyd Garrison's leadership
Abraham Lincoln
40% of popular vote; over 50% of electoral vote
Alfred Thayer Mahan (author, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History)
His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I
Horace Mann
instrumental in pushing for public education and education reform in general
William McKinley
pro-business, his assassination made Theodore Roosevelt president
James Monroe
president who wanted Europe to stay out of the Western Hemisphere
Mormon Church
founded by Joseph Smith, moved to Salt Lake City
National Labor Union
first national labor federation in the United States
Thomas Paine
English printer who advocated colonial independence and argued for the merits of republicanism over monarchy
Franklin Pierce
moderate, elected president after publishing of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
James Polk
a Democrat expansionist who ran against Henry Clay in 1844: "54 40 or fight", Mexican-American War
Populist Party/Platform
farmers' movement: government ownership of railroads and telegraphs, a graduated income tax, direct election of U.S. senators, and shorter workdays
Joseph Pulitzer
helped newspaper industry grow with yellow journalism
Queen Liluokalani/Hawaii
the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii; her government was overthrown by the U.S.
Republican Party
dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories, but they championed a wider range of issues, including the further development of national roads, more liberal land distribution in the West, and increased protective tariffs
Rough Riders
the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War
Second Continental Congress
convened just weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord. It prepared for war by establishing a Continental Army, printing money, and creating government offices to supervise policy.
Seventh Day Adventist Church
a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the "seventh day" of the week, as the Sabbath; established in 1863 with Ellen G. White as one of its founders
Shakers
utopian group that splintered from the Quakers, believed that they and all other churches had grown too interested in this world and neglectful of their afterlives; no sex
Sons of Liberty
group who protested the Stamp Act
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
one of the leader's of the women's rights movement
Zachary Taylor
Whig military hero, elected president
Frederick Jackson Turner (author of The Significance of the Frontier in American History)
announced that the frontier was gone, and with it the first period of American history
Nat Turner
led violent slave uprising, caused passage of black codes
"Boss" Tweed
an American politician who was convicted for stealing over 100 million dollars from New York City taxpayers through political corruption; head on Tammany Hall
Martin Van Buren
became president as the country was entering the Panic of 1837; made the situation worse by continuing Jackson's policy of favoring hard currency
Booker T. Washington
promoted economic independence as the means by which blacks could improve their lot
George Washington
led a colonial contingent that attacked a French outpost and lost badly, but welcomed as a hero in Virginia; first president
Whig Party
a loose coalition that shared one thing in common: opposition to one or more of the Democrats' policies
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
spearheaded the crusade for prohibition
Workingmen's Party
the first Marxist-influenced political party in the United States