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Protective layer composed of dense avascular connective tissue, Outermost layer, Sclera & Cornea
inside of the fibrous tunic, opaque white region that composes bulk of the fibrous tunic. Observed anteriorly as the "white of the eye"
inside of the fibrous tunic, anterior most portion of fibrous tunic. Modified structurally to form a transparent layer. This is where light enters the eye
inside the vascular tunic, rich vascular nutritive layer containing a dark pigment that prevents light scattering within the eye. Posterior most portion of uvea
inside the vascular tunic, modified anterior structure of the choroid. Consists of the following 2 structures: ciliary muscles & ciliary processes
anterior most portion of the vascular tunic/uvea. This is the portion where you get the color in your eyes
part of the vascular tunic/uvea. the opening in the iris which allows light to pass into the eye
innermost tunic of the eye, consists of the retina, optic disc, macula lutea, & fovea centrallis
delicate two layered (pigmented epithelial layer & neural layer) structure, is part of the sensory tunic
Pigmented epithelial layer
outer pigmented layer of retina that abuts the choroid and extends anteriorly to cover the ciliary body and posterior sides of the iris
Neural layer (nervous layer)
inner transparent layer of retina that extends anteriorly only to the ciliary body. Contains the photoreceptors rods and cones
Optic disc (blind spot)
part ot the sensory tunic, site where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball (contains no photoreceptors)
Macula Lutea (yellow spot)
part of the sensory tunic, lateral to the optic disc and directly posterior to the lens. An area of high cone density
part of the sensory tunic. center of the macula Lutea. Small pit that contains mostly cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity
elevates eye and turns it laterally, oculomotor III is the controlling cranial nerve
focuses the light entering the eye onto the retina. A flexible crystalline structure held vertically in the eye's interior by suspensory ligaments attached to the ciliary body
those portions of the eye anterior to the lens. Contains the clear watery fluid called aqueous humor. Divided into two parts: Anterior & posterior chamber
those portions of the eye posterior to the lens. Contains the gel-like substance called vitreous humor (vitreous body)
Color receptors that permit high levels of visual acuity, Only function under high light intensity
Formed from the axons of the ganglion cells leaving the retina. Attaches to the retina at the optic disc
where ganglion cells of the retina converge at posterior aspect of eyeball and exit from the eye
contain fibers from lateral side of eye on the same side and medial side of eye from opposite side
Sharpness of vision. Typically tested using a Snellen Eye Chart. Results given as a ratio of distances from what you see over what a normal eye sees (i.e. 20/20 vision)
Image is focused in front of the retina. No problem with close vision, but far objects are blurred or seen indistinctly. Correction requires a concave lens
Image is focused behind the retina. No problem with distant vision, but close objects are blurred or seen indistinctly. Correction requires a convex lens
Defect in curvature of the lens and/or cornea. Tested with an A Chart. and spacing. Correct with a cylindrical lens
Presbyopia (Old Vision)
difficulty in focusing for near or far vision, due to elasticity of lens decreasing
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