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Chapter four

STUDY
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chromatin
structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
chromosome
threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
cytoplasm
jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
DNA
molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
diaphragm
muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
metabolism
sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
organelle
cellular structure that provides a specialized function
pathology
study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences
peristalsis
rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward
cytology
the study of the body at the cellular level
epithelial tissue
covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities, and canals, forms tubes and ducts, provides the secreting portions of glands, and makes up the epidermis of the skin
connective tissue
supports and connects other tissues and organs
muscle tissue
provides the contractile tissue of the body
nervous tissue
transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body
anatomical position
body is erect, eyes are looking forward, upper limbs hang to the sides, with the palms facing forward, lower limbs are parallel, toes pointing straight
midsagittal (median)
right and left
coronal (frontal)
anterior and posterior
transverse
superior and inferior
Dorsal cavity
cranial and spinal
cranial
brain
spinal
spinal cord
spine
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
cervical
neck
thoracic
chest
lumbar
lion
sacral
lower back
coccyx
tailbone
ventral
thoracic and abdominopelvic
thoracic
heart and lungs
abdominopelvic
digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs
RUQ
right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
LUQ
left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
RLQ
part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
LLQ
part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
left hypochondriac
upper left region beneath the ribs
epigastric
region above the stomach
right hypochondriac
upper right region beneath the ribs
left lumbar
left middle lateral region
unbilical
region of the navel
right lumbar
right middle lateral region
left inguinal (iliac)
left lower lateral region
hypogastric
lower middle region beneath the navel
right inguinal (iliac)
right lower lateral region
abduction
movement away
adduction
movement towards
medial
pertaining to the midline
lateral
pertaining to a side
superior (cephalad)
toward the head or upper portion
inferior (caudal)
toward the tail
proximal
nearer to the center or point of attachment
distal
away from the center or point of attachment
anterior
front of the body
posterior
back of the body
parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to the internal organs
prone
lying face down
supine
lying face up
inversion
turning inward or inside out
eversion
turning outward
palmer
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial
toward the surface of the body or external
deep
away from the surface of the body or internal
cyt/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
kary/o, nucle/o
nucleus
anter/o
anterior
caud/o
tail
crani/o
cranium
dist/o
far
dors/o
back
infer/o
below
later/o
side
medi/o
middle
poster/o
back
proxim/o
near
ventr/o
belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen
cervic/o
neck
gastr/o
stomach
ili/o
ilium
inguin/o
groin
lumb/o
loins
pelv/i, pelv/o
pelvis
spin/o
spine
thorac/o
chest
umbilic/o
umbilicus, navel
albin/o, leuk/o
white
chlor/o
green
chrom/o
color
cirrh/o, jaund/o, xanth/o
yelllow
cyan/o
blue
erythr/o
red
melan/o
black
poli/o
gray
acr/o
extremity
eti/o
cause
idi/o
unknown, peculiar
morph/o
form
path/o
disease
radi/o
radiation
somat/o
body
son/o
sound
viscer/o
internal organs
xer/o
dry
-genesis
forming, origin
-gnosis
knowing
-gram
record, writing
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-logist
specialist
-logy
study of
-meter
instrument for measurement
-metry
act of measuring
-pathy
disease
ab-
away
ad-
toward
hetero-
different
homeo-
same
infra-
below
peri-
around
super-
above
trans-
through
ultra-
beyond
signs
indicators
symptoms
only patient sees
etiology
cause or origin of a disease
diagnosis
cause and nature
prognosis
prediction of the course and its probable outcome
idiopathic
cause is unkown
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
analyte
substance analyzed or tested
contrast medium
substance injected into the body
dehiscence
bursting open of a wound
febrile
feverish
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy
morbid
diseased
nuclear medicine
radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
radionuclides
substances that emit radiation spontaneously
scan
a computerized image
sepsis
pathological state
suppurative
producing generation of pus
endoscopy
visual exam of a body cavity of canal using specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
laparoscopy
visual exam of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy
exam of the lungs, pleura, and pleural state with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
complete blood count
common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets ; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; sorts white blood cells into five sub types with their percentages
urinalysis
common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
computed tomography
rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
Doppler
ultrasound used to to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
fluoroscopy
x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures
magnetic resonance imaging
uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
nuclear scan
uses a radioactive material called a tracer that is introduced into the body and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures
position emission tomography
using computed tomography to record the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
radiography
uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film
SPECT
integrates computed tomography and a radioactive material injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
tomography
produces an image representing a detailed cross-section of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
ultrasonography
using high frequency sound waves that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor
biopsy
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination
ablation
removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery
anastomosis
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow form one to another
cauterize
destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
currettage
scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette
incision and drainage
incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of luids from a wound or cavity
laser surgery
employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues
radical dissection
surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence
resection
partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure
ant
anterior
AP
anteroposterior
Bx, bx
biopsy
CBC
complete blood count
CT
computed tomography
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
DSA
digital subtraction angiography
Dx
diagnosis
FS
frozen section
I&D
incision and drainage
LAT, lat
lateral
LLQ
lower left quadrant
LUQ`
left upper quadrant
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
PET
positron emission tomography
post
posterior
RF
rhuematoid factor; radio frequency
RLQ
right lower quadrant
RUQ
right upper quadrant
sono
sonogram
SPECT
single photon emission computed tomography
Sx
symptom
Tx
treatment
UA
urinanalysis
U&Q, U/L
upper and lower
US
ultrasound