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Terms in this set (55)
food items that contain considerable calories but are of little nutritional value
Foods with a high ratio of nutrients to calories
A panel found on a package of food which contains a variety of information about the nutritional value of the food item.
Nutrition Facts Label
The label on packaged food that shows the nutrients in the food.
Percent Daily value
a guide to the nutrients in one serving of food
A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
A unit of the energy supplied by food.
Dietary reference intakes- nutrient goals to be achieved over time
Nutrients required by the body that the body cannot produce
Enlargement of the thyroid gland
A unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
Kcal; 1000 times a calorie; Calorie with a capital c; we measure food energy in these
Recommended Dietary Allowances
recommended nutrient intakes that will meet the needs of almost all healthy people
The building blocks of proteins
Basal Metabolic Rate
the rate at which heat is produced by an individual in a resting state
The minimal amount of energy needed for sustaining life.
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body; they must be eat in in foods
Nonessential Amino Acids
Amino acids that are produced by the body and do not need to be consumed in dietary sources.
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
Nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
A tough complex carbohydrate that the body cannot digest
causes liver to convert stored nutrients into glucose
Mostly insoluble fiber containing galactose, glucose, and other monosaccharides bonded together.
Fiber that does not dissolve in water and is not broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in milk and consists of galactose and glucose.
Fiber that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
A type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods.
simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the body's cells
Phospholipid that is an important component of cell membranes.
Linoleic Acid LIpids
an essential fatty acid that must be consumed for proper health
Monosaturated Fatty Acid
A single double bond in the fatty acid chain.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Fatty acids that have several spots where hydrogens are missing.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms
Trans Fatty Acids
a kind of fat formed when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil during processing
A substance that slows down oxidation, foods include blueberries and green vegetables.
fat soluble vitamins
vitamins A, D, E, K
foods believed to have specific health benefits and/or to prevent disease
a blood test used to measure the amount of homocysteine in the blood
elements found in food that are used by the body
compounds found in food that help regulate many body processes
water soluble vitamins
vitamins B and C
Chemicals in plant-based foods that are not nutrients but that have effects on the body.
a product intended for ingestion that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to add further nutritional value to (supplement) the diet
any food or supplement that delivers a health benefit
chemicals used to preserve food
electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength
genetically modified foods
foods derived from organisms whose DNA has been altered using genetic engineering techniques
excludes all animal flesh but does include eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese
excludes animal flesh and eggs but does include dairy products
occurring after the ingestion of carbohydrate, with consequent release of insulin
A complete vegetarian who does not eat any animal products.
a person who eats mostly or only plant-based foods
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