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Medical Terminology - Chapter 18

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Adenectomy
Removal of a gland.
Adrenalectomy
Removal of an adrenal gland.
Adrenocorticotropic
Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.
Aldosterone
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.
Antidiuretic hormone
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.
Catecholamines
Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.
Corticosteroid
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples.
Cortisol
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
Electrolyte
Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).
Endocrinologist
Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.
Epinephrine
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Estradiol
Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
Estrogen
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
Estrogenic
Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.
Euthyroid
Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Fasting blood sugar
Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Follicle-stimulating
Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland;
hormone
stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.
Glucagon
Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Glucocorticoid
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
Glycogen
Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).
Glycosuria
Sugar in urine.
Gonadotropin
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Growth hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
Homeostasis
Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.
Hormonal
Pertaining to a hormone.
Hormone
Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.
Hypercalcemia
High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.
Hypercalciuria
High levels of calcium in urine.
Hyperthyroidism
Increased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia
Low levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypoglycemia
Low levels of sugar in the blood.
Hypogonadism
Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
Hypoinsulinism
Deficient production of insulin (pancreatic hormone).
Hypophysectomy
Removal of the pituitary gland.
Hypophysis
Pituitary gland.
Hypopituitarism
Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Insulin
Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.
Luteinizing hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
Mineralocorticoid
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Neurohypophysis
Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.
Norepinephrine
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
Oxytocin
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
Pancreas
Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.
Parathormone
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.
Parathyroidectomy
Removal of parathyroid glands.
Pineal gland
Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.
Pituitary gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
Progesterone
Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Prolactin
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.
Receptor
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
Sella turcica
Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.
Somatotropin
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
Steroid
Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).
Sympathomimetic
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
Target tissue
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
Testosterone
Hormone secreted by the testes.
Tetraiodothyronine
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
Thyroiditis
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Thyrotropin
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
Triiodothyronine
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
Vasopressin
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Addison disease
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal virilism
Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
Cretinism
Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Cushing syndrome
Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.
Diabetes insipidus
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
Diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
Dwarfism
Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Endemic goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.
Exophthalmos
Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.
Gastroparesis
Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
Gigantism
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Glucose tolerance test
Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Graves disease
Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.
Hyperinsulinism
Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.
Hyperparathyroidism
Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Hypoparathyroidism
Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Hypothyroidism
Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Ketoacidosis
High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
Myxedema
Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.
Nodular goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
Panhypopituitarism
Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones.
Pheochromocytoma
Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
Radioactive iodine uptake
Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
Tetany
Constant muscle contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.
Thyroid carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid function tests
Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
Thyroid scan
Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.
Thyrotoxicosis
Hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
Secrets Thyroxine
what is the function of the thyroid gland
adenohypophysis
whait is another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
insulin
which hormone is secreated by the pancreas
parathyroid hormone
which hormone regulates calcium in the blood and bones
sodium
what is an example of electrolyte
iodine
what is an element that is present in thyroxine
estrogen
what is the hormone secreted by the ovary and adrenal cortex
secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
describe gonadotropins
gynecomastia
term for excessive development of mammary tissue in a male
potassium
Kal/i is a combining form for which substance
diabetes mellitus
insulin deficiency or resistance leads to hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis
acromegaly
post-puberty hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
graves disease
exophthalmos is a symptom of which endocrine disorder
sodium
natr/o is a combining form for which substance
type 1 diabetes
little or no insulin produced
secondary complications of diabetes
which of the following is associated with neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy
achondroplasia
defective cartilage formation that affects bone growth
thyroid scan
administrative of radioactive compound and visualization with a scanner to detect tumors or nodules
pancreas
insulin is secreted by which organ
adrenal medulla
epinephrine is secreted by which organ
anterior pituitary gland
follical-stimulating hormone is secreted by which hormone
thyroid gland
thyroxine is secreted by which organ
posterior pituitary gland
vasopressin is secreted by which organ
anterior pituitary gland
growth hormone is secreted by which organ
thyrotoxicosis
abnormal condition (hypersecretion) of the thyroid gland
hyper, pituitary gland
acromegaly is hyper or hypo and secreted by which organ
hypo, thyroid
cretinism is hyper or hypo and secreted by which organ
electrolyte
a mineral salt found in the blood and tissue; potassium is an example
calcitronin
hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers blood calcium
pancreatectomy
resection of a gland near and behind the stomach
oxytocin
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor
glucosuria
sugar present in the urine
homeostasis
tendency of an organism to maitain a constant internal environment
hyponatremia
blood condition of deficient sodium
glucocorticoids
type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; necessary for the use of sugars, fats, and proteins
parathyroidectomy
resection of four small glands in the neck region
hypokalemia
blood condition of deficient potassium
glycemic
condition of sugar in the blood
radio immuno essay
test that measures hormone levels in plasma
glucose tolerance test
test that measures levels of sugar in the blood
thyroscan
radioactive compound is given and localized in the thyroid gland
acromegaly
enlargment of extremities caused by excessive growth hormone after puberty
thyroid carcinoma
malignant tissue of an endocrine gland in the neck
cretinism
extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood produces this condition
myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood produces this condition
exophthalmos
enlargment and bulging of the eyeballs caused by hyperthyroidism
hirsutism
excessive hair on the face and body of adult women
pheochromocytoma
benign tumor of the adrenal medulla
diabetes mellitus
lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin to promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
diabetes insipidus
disease condition due to malfunction of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
diabetes mellitus
disease condition due to malfunction of cells in pancreas
hypokalemia
deficient amount of potassium in the blood
hyponatremia
deficient sodium in the blood
adrenopathy
disease condition of adrenal gland
pancreas
located behind the stomch; alpha beta islet cells secrete hormones
adrenal cortex
outer section of a gland above each kidney; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
ovaries
located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg cell production and estrogen secretion
parathyroid glands
four small glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland
thyroxine
secreted by the thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells;T4
parathyroid
posterior side of the thyroid gland
adrenal medulla
inner section o(medulla) of each adrenal gland: located above each kidney; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
testis
2 glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion
thyroid gland
located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine
ovary
lower abdomen of a female
pituitary (hypophysis)
below the brain in the sella turcica
vasopressin
posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)
aldosterone
secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption
gonadotropic hormones
anterior pituitary gland; these hormones are FSH and LH
oxytocin
posterior pituitary gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis);ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex
thyroid-stimulating hormone
anterior pituitary gland
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
LH
luteinizing hormone
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
PTH
parathyroid hormone
GH
growth hormone
PRL
prolactin
T 4
thyroxine; tetraiodothyronine
T 3
triiodothyronone
OT
oxytocin
STH
somatotropin (growth hormone)
testosterone
promotes growth and maintenance of male sex characteristics
ADH
stimulates water reabsorption by kidney tubules; decreases urine output
parathyroid hormone
raises blood calcium
ACTH
stimulates secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex
cortisol
increases blood sugar
insulin
helps transport glucose to cells; decreases blood sugar
estradiol
develops and maintains female sex characteristics
thyrotoxicosis
abnormal condition (poison) of the thyroid gland
pancreatectomy
removal of the pancrease
hypogonadism
condition of deficiency or underdevelopment of the sex organs
estrogenic
pertaining to producing female characteristics
hypocalcemia
deficiency of calcium in the blood
thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid gland
polydipsia
condition of excessive thirst
hyperkalemia
excessive potassium in the blood
hyperthyroidism
condition of increased secretion from the thyroid gland
ketoacidosis
condition of excessive ketones (acids) in the blood as a result of diabetes mellitus
steroids
complex substances derived from cholesterol; hormones from the adrenal cortex and sex hormones are steroids
catecholamines
complex substances derived from an amino acid; epinephrine(adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are examplex
adenohypophysis
anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
tetany
continuous contractions of muscles associated with low levels of parathyroid hormone
mineralocorticoids
steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex (outer region of the adrenal gland) that influences salt (minerals such as sodium and potassium) metabolism
glucocorticoids
steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex that influences sugar metabolism in the body
glycogen
animal starch; storage form of glucose
androgen
male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lasser extentMale hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics. by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example,
oxytocin
hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary that stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor
tetraiodothyronine
major hormone from the thyroid gland; thyroxine (contains 4 iodine atoms)
adrenal virilism
abnormal secretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex produces masculine characteristics in a female
thyroid carcinoma
cancerous tumor of the thyroid gland
hirsutism
excessive hair on the body(result of excessive secretion of androgens)
type 1
destruction of the beta islets of Langerhans; insulin is not produced (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM)
diabetic neuropathy
destruction of nerves as a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus
ketoacidosis
abnormal condition of high levels of ketones (acids) in the blood as a result of improper burning of fat acids; fats are burned because the cells do not have sugar available as a result of lack of insulin or inability of insulin to act
hypoglycemia
too little sugar in the blood; this can occur if too much insulin is taken by a diabetic patient
type 2
insulin deficiency and resistance by target tissue to the action of insulin; (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM)
diabetic retinopathy
destruction of blood vessels in the retina as a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus
diabetic coma
unconsciousness caused by high lavels of sugar in the blood; water leaves cells to balance the large amounts of sugare int he blood, leading to cellular dehydration
atherosclerosis
collection of fatty plaque in arteries
hyperglycemia
high level of sugar in the blood; insulin is unavailable or unable to transport sugar from the blood into cells
gastroparesis
decreased gastric motility (-paresis means slight paralysis); secondary complication to diabetes
insulin shock
hypoglycemic shock caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise
thyroid scan
a radioactive compound is given, and the thyroid gland is imaged using a scanning device
fasting plasma glucose
measurement of blood sugare levels in a fasting patient (at leaset 4 hours) and after intervals of 30 minutes and 1,2, and 3 hours after ingestion of glucose
exophthalmometry
measurement of eyeball protrusion (symptom of graves disease)
ovaries
located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion
parathyroid glands
4 small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland. Some people may have 3 or 5 parathyroid glands
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenphypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). It weighs only 1/16 of an ounce and is a half inch
adrenaline (epinephrine)
secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
antidiuretic hormone ADH
secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)