Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.
Fasting blood sugar
Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Glucose tolerance test
Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.
Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.
High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
Radioactive iodine uptake
Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
Thyroid function tests
Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.
secondary complications of diabetes
which of the following is associated with neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy
administrative of radioactive compound and visualization with a scanner to detect tumors or nodules
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor
type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; necessary for the use of sugars, fats, and proteins
lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin to promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
disease condition due to malfunction of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
outer section of a gland above each kidney; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg cell production and estrogen secretion
inner section o(medulla) of each adrenal gland: located above each kidney; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
2 glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis);ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex
complex substances derived from cholesterol; hormones from the adrenal cortex and sex hormones are steroids
complex substances derived from an amino acid; epinephrine(adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are examplex
steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex (outer region of the adrenal gland) that influences salt (minerals such as sodium and potassium) metabolism
steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex that influences sugar metabolism in the body
male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lasser extentMale hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics. by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example,
hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary that stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor
abnormal secretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex produces masculine characteristics in a female
destruction of the beta islets of Langerhans; insulin is not produced (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM)
abnormal condition of high levels of ketones (acids) in the blood as a result of improper burning of fat acids; fats are burned because the cells do not have sugar available as a result of lack of insulin or inability of insulin to act
too little sugar in the blood; this can occur if too much insulin is taken by a diabetic patient
insulin deficiency and resistance by target tissue to the action of insulin; (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM)
destruction of blood vessels in the retina as a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus
unconsciousness caused by high lavels of sugar in the blood; water leaves cells to balance the large amounts of sugare int he blood, leading to cellular dehydration
high level of sugar in the blood; insulin is unavailable or unable to transport sugar from the blood into cells
decreased gastric motility (-paresis means slight paralysis); secondary complication to diabetes
hypoglycemic shock caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise
a radioactive compound is given, and the thyroid gland is imaged using a scanning device
fasting plasma glucose
measurement of blood sugare levels in a fasting patient (at leaset 4 hours) and after intervals of 30 minutes and 1,2, and 3 hours after ingestion of glucose
located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion
4 small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland. Some people may have 3 or 5 parathyroid glands
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenphypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). It weighs only 1/16 of an ounce and is a half inch