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49 terms

Mosby Ch 23 Fluid Therapy

Florida Institute of Animal Arts access
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fluid therapy
used to correct fluid deficits, electrolyte disturbances, and acid-base imbalances
Total Body Water (TBW)
60% (of the body is composed of fluid)
(3 components of) TBW
ICF (intracellular fluid, interstitial fluid), Plasma (intravascular fluid), ECF (extracellular fluid)
Homeostasis
the maintenance of stable internal conditions
osmosis
process of movement of water across a cell membrane
(3 major) extracellular electrolytes
sodium, chloride, bicarbonate
sodium (is responsible for)
determining ECF volume and osmotic pressure
(3 major) intracellular electrolytes
potassium, magnesium, phosphorous
potassium (extracellular electrolytes responsible for)
osmotic pressure within the ICF (which electrolyte)
hypernatremia
excessive sodium (dehydration)
hyponatremia
low sodium levels (creates a low osmolality)
Hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
Hypoventilation
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs (causing hypercapnia)
Hypotension
low blood pressure
Hypovolemia
deficient volume of circulating blood
Hypothermia
abnormally low body temperature
five hypos
hypoxemia, hypoventilation, hypotension, hypovolemia, hypothermia
(3 groups of) fluids
crystalloids, artificial colloids, blood products
crystalloids
contain small molecules that can pass thru semipermeable membrane and enter all body compartments
isotonic
without causing shrinkage or swelling of the cells
hypotonic
causes cells to swell
hypertonic
causes cell to shrink
artificial colloids
contain large molecules that do not readily pass through a semipermeable membrane (used for expanding blood volume)
artificial colloids solutions
hydroxyethyl starches (hetastarch, pentastarch), dextrans, gelatins (gelofusin, haemaccel, vetaplasm)
2 most common indications for fluid therapy
dehydration, hypovolemia
(goal in Tx of acute) hemorrhagic hypovolemia
stop hemorrhage and support the cardiovascular system (restoration of vascular volume)
shock
condition in which systemic blood pressure is inadequate to deliver oxygen and nutrients to vital tissues and organs
(goal in Tx of) shock
identify cause, focus on restoring blood volume and improving tissue perfusion (fluid therapy is the foundation)
dehydration
loss of body water, often accompanied electrolyte imbalances
routes of fluid therapy
oral, SQ, IV, intraosseous,
evaluation factors of fluid therapy
fluid loss, volume of fluid loss, rate of fluid loss, fluid solution selected, volume and rate of administration, patient status
SQ fluid sites
over the dorsal neck and cranial trunk, where loose connective tissue is abundant (area where limbs join the trunk should be avoided)
IV fluid sites (easy to prepare, catheterize, bandage)
cephalic, medial femoral, and saphenous veins
intraosseous sites
femur, humerus, and wing of the ilium
laboratory test (used to evaluate degree of anemia vs dehydration)
packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP)
whole blood components
cellular portion (RBC, WBC, platelets) and plasma
Fresh Whole Blood (FWB contains)
RBC, WBC, platelets, plasma proteins, and coagulation factors (Tx for acute hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock, thrombocytopenia)
Stored Whole Blood (SWB contains)
RBC, Plasma proteins (Tx for anemia with hypoproteinemia, hypovolemic shock)
Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBC contains)
RBC, reduced plasma (Tx to increase red cell mass in symptomatic anemia)
Platelet Rich Plasma (contains)
Platelets, few RBC's & WBC's, some plasma (Tx for life threatening bleeding)
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP contains)
plasma, albumin, all coagulation factors (Tx for coagulation disorders/factor deficiencies)
Frozen Plasma (FP contains)
plasma, albumin, stable coagulation factors (Tx for stable coagulation factor deficiencies)
Cyopreciptate (CRYO contains)
factor VIII, vWF (vonWillebrand factor), fibrinogen, fibronectin (Tx for von Willebrand & hemophilia A patients)
Oxyglobin solutions
sterile solution of purified , polymerized bovine hemoglobin in a modified lactated ringer's solution (increases oxygen delivery to tissues, has no need for blood typing)
canine blood types
DEA (erythrocyte antigen)1.1, 1.2, and 3-13 (total 13 specific antigens or blood types)
universal canine blood donor
DEA 1.1- negative (ideally, also DEA 1.2- negative and DEA 7- negative)
antigen-antibody reaction (blood type which causes)
DEA 1.1- negative
cat blood types
A, B, and AB (no universal donor, type B has a very strong anti-A alloantibodies)
hypoxemia, hypoventilation, hypotension, hypovolemia, hypothermia
five hypos