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chapter 9 test
Terms in this set (39)
Who invented the sewing machine
Who invented the telegraph?
Samuel F. B. Morse
Who invented the steamboat?
Who invented the steel plow?
Who invented the Mechanical Reaper
Why did the sewing machine help expand the national market economy?
Reduced the time to sew things drastically
Why did the telegraph help expand the national market economy?
Quicker and easier to communicate
Why did the steamboat help expand the national market economy?
The boats could finally turn around and make a return because of steam engines.
Why did the railroad help expand the national market economy?
Railroads brought speed and were able to operate in winter and brought goods to people who lived inland.
Why did the steel plow help expand the national market economy?
It sliced through heavy soil much more easily than existing plows and therefore took less
animal power to pull. Enabled farmers to replace their oxen with horses.
Why did the mechanical reaper help expand the national market economy?
It was faster because it permitted one farmer to do the work of five hired hands. Also, could shift to cash crops now.
How did the canals promote the new market economy?
Allowed to ship freight at cheaper costs and faster
How did the Entrepreneurial activity promote the new market economy?
Allowed people to invest money for great profit or great lost
How did the national road promote the new market economy?
Road that went out west connected maryland and illonis
How did the industralization promote the new market economy?
Buying and selling goods then people making them
What economic changes began to take place in America by the mid-19c as it began to industrialize?
Farmers began specializing. America starting going through a market revolution.
What is Capitalism?
private control of means of production, used for profit.
What is an Entrepreneur?
invest own money in new industries; great loss, profit.
Describe the impact of the market revolution on potential consumers.
manufactured items grew less expensive as technological advances lowered prices - falling prices meant the many Americans could buy new products for pleasure and work
How did these new products, communication methods, and modes of transportation help the U. S. economy grow?
by reducing production time and material cost, and shipping costs, the consumers were able to purchase more for pleasure as well as work which helped the economy grow
Why were the reaper and the steel plow important early 19c inventions?
They helped everything to move westward and claim more land and also allowed farmers to get more work in a shorter amount of time with less labor.
What was manifest destiny?
Belief that U.S. destined to expand to Pacific Ocean
What was the agreement made in Fort Laramie?
The Native Americans were given control of much of the Great Plains, and they agreed not to attack settlers.
Santa fe Trail
This trail led 780 miles from independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. This was a trading route
Pioneers went down this trail and they went to claim land and to have a new start.
Why did Americans move westward in greater numbers by the 1840s?
New start, land, make money, access to trade with Asia
What were the racial overtones of this philosophy?
It provided the message that White Americans knew what was better than former inhibits and had more knowledge. Promoted the idea that whites were the supreme race.
What were the effects of the U. S. government policies toward Native Americans before and immediately after the Black Hawk War?
They were forced to either assimilate or move from their homes. After the War the tribes that participated were forced from their homes. The Treaty of Fort Laramie provided some Native American Tribes control of the Central Plains, land east of the Rocky Mountains that stretched roughly from the Arkansas River north to Canada. This somewhat improved relationships.
List the major beliefs of the Mormons. Why did they move to Utah in search of a permanent home for their community?
They moved to Utah to escape religious persecution as they were facing a lot of hate. Angry neighbors had printed posters against polygamy and Smith destroyed the printing press leading him into jail. Utah was a place to peacefully practice their faith.
How did President Polk support Manifest Destiny?
Polk supported the treaty by making a main statement on his presidential platform calling for the annexation of the entire Oregon Territory.
How did relations between the Mexicans and Native Americans in the southwest change after Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821?
Before Mexico gained their independence from Spain they would send missionaries to convert Mexicans to Christianity. The Native Americans were forced into labor by Mexican and a tribe retaliated by terrorizing Mexican settlements and stole their livestock.
Why / how did the Mexican government encouraged Americans to settle in its Northern provinces in the early 1820s?
To prevent border violations by horse thieves and to protect the territory from Native American attacks. Mexico gave land grants to farmers in exchange for a pledge to obey Mexican laws and observe the official religion of Roman Catholic.
What were some of the cultural conflicts caused by the influx of white settlers into Texas?
The white settlers practiced protestant faith, mainly spoke English and brought slaves with them despite Mexico abolishment of slavery in 1824.
Why did the Mexican government seal its borders against any further immigration from the U. S. by 1830?
They no longer wanted Anglo settlers because of cultural conflicts which was leading to tension.
What steps did Santa Ana take against the Anglos that would eventually lead to the "Texas Revolution?"
Santa revoked local powers in Texas and other Mexican states in response to petitions by Austin. He also had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolution and suspended the 1824 Mexican constitution.
Why is the Battle of the Alamo an important symbol in U. S. history?
The Battle of the Alamo is significant because it shaped the events associated with westward expansion in the United States. It is a symbol of nationalism of how the Americans fought against thousands of Mexicans.
Explain the differences between the Northern and Southern positions on the annexation of Texas.
Southerners sought to extend slavery, already established in Texas. Northerners feared the annexation of more slave territory would tip the uneasy balance in Senate in factor or slave states.
Which group or country gained the most from the entry of Texas into the U. S.? Who lost the most?
Mexico, as Texas had been a state of Mexico before it declared independence in 1836 because of this it's annexation into the US in 1848 meant that Mexico wouldn't be able to recover Texas. The issue of Texas also caused the American-Mexican War 1846-48 in which Mexico lost California, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico to the US.
Why was the United States at first reluctant to annex Texas?
the issue of slavery
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