59 terms

BIOL 122 Chp 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology at HACC York Campus (HACC, Central Pennsylvania's Community College) http://robswatski.virb.com/
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Terms in this set (...)

homeostasis
the maintenance of stable internal conditions
body fluids
refers to body water and its dissolved substances
interstitial fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body
extracellular fluid
fluid outside the cells of the body
intracellular fluid
the fluid contained within cells; also called the cytosol
blood plasma
the extracellular fluid found within blood vessels
lymph
the extracellular fluid that the lymphatic system collects and returns to the bloodstream
plasma membranes
separate intracellular fluid from interstitial fluid
blood vessel walls
divide interstitial fluid from blood plasma
metabolic water
the water that is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration and other chemical reactions in the body
electrolytes
compounds that dissociate into ions; comprise most solutes
sodium ion
the major cation of the ECF
chloride ion
one of the two major anions of the ECF
bicarbonate ion
one of the two major anions of the ECF
potassium ion
the major cation of the intracellular fluid
proteins
one of the two major anions of the intracellular fluid; increase blood osmotic pressure
organic phosphate
one of the two major anions of the intracellular fluid
denaturation
the loss of shape in a protein as a result of changes in temperature, pH, or exposure to chemicals
renaturation
a protein's chemical and physical aspects are restored when the conditions of it's natural environment return to normal
acidosis
excessive acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate; depresses synaptic transmission in the CNS and can lead to coma
alkalosis
abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues; overexcites the CNS and PNS and can cause seizures
acids
compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
bases
substances that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
pH range of blood
7.35 - 7.45
buffer systems
protective systems regulating amounts of hydrogen ions in body fluids that function to prevent rapid, drastic changes in pH
carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system
the main buffer of the ECF
carbonic acid
when [H+] is low, it functions as a weak acid and provides H+; dissociates into water and carbon dioxide
bicarbonate ion
when [H+] is high, it functions as a weak base and removes excess H+ to make carbonic acid
protein buffer system
the main buffer of blood plasma
albumin
the main protein in the protein buffer system
carboxyl group
the part of an amino acid that acts like an acid and can release H+
amino group
the part of an amino acid that acts like a base and can pick up H+
phosphate buffer system
the main buffer of the intracellular fluid; can accept or donate H+ depending on the solution it is in
phosphoric acid
a nonvolatile by-product from the breakdown of nucleic acids and phosphoproteins
respiratory compensation
changes in pulmonary ventilation correct the pH of the body fluids by expelling or retaining carbon dioxide
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air into and out of the lungs; can lead to respiratory alkalosis
hypoventilation
deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs; can lead to respiratory acidosis
hypercapnia
the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood; lowers the pH of body fluids
volatile acid
an acid, such as carbonic acid, that can leave solution and enter the atmosphere
respiratory center
the area of the medulla oblongata that regulates the rate of breathing
renal compensation
the adjustment of pH by changing the rate of H+ secretion by the renal tubules
nonvolatile acid
an acid that cannot be eliminated by exhaling; phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and lactic acid
sulfuric acid
a nonvolatile acid by-product of protein metabolism
lactic acid
a nonvolatile acid by-product of anaerobic metabolism
Na+ H+ antiporters
located in the PCT, these membrane proteins secrete H+ as they reabsorb Na+
intercalated cells
cells in the collecting ducts whose membranes include proton pumps that secrete H+ into the tubule fluid
chemical buffer systems
the first line of defense against pH shift; includes the bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein buffer systems
physiological buffers
the second line of defense against pH shift; includes the respiratory and renal mechanisms
respiratory disorders
pathologic processes which disrupt acid-base balance due to their effects on the lungs (i.e. alveolar ventilation)
metabolic disorders
pathologic processes which disrupt acid-base balance due to their effects on anything other than the lungs (i.e. kidneys, GI tract, cellular respiration, etc.)
respiratory acidosis
PaCO2 too high; hypoventilation
respiratory alkalosis
PaCO2 too low; hyperventilation
metabolic acidosis
the concentration of bicarbonate ion is too low
metabolic alkalosis
the concentration of bicarbonate ion is too high
complete compensation
blood pH brought back within normal range
partial compensation
blood pH is still lower than 7.35 or higher than 7.45
arterial blood gases
test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH
partial pressure
refers to the pressure exerted by a specific gas in a mixture of gases
ROME
Respiratory Opposite; Metabolic Equal