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Cremation History

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Docetism believed that Jesus consisted of...
a pure spirit and appeared to have a material body
The __________ was branded as heretics by the early church for their belief in a stark dualism between spirt and matter
Docetists
Cremation countered arguments against cremation made by resurrectionist by spiritualizing the resurrection, and in essence reviving docetism.
True or False
Do resurrectionsist support crematoin
Yes or No
What does the brick and mortar period refer to
the period between 1896 ad 1963 when cremationist must about building the perfect crematory and columbarium
Which ancient religions opposed cremation
Judaism and Christianity
Which ancient societies and religions embraced cremation
Greek, Indians, Romans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians and Thracians
Cremation list its dominance in the West when?
With the rise of Christianity, First Century C.E.
Where was cremation first practice
it was standard practice for the ancients, with the exception fo the Egyptians, Chinese and Hebrews
When did modern cremation begin
Late 19th century
Who invented the first modern retort
Dr Francis Julius Lemoyne
How did the ancients practice cremation
publicly on a outdoor pyre
What were the heat sources crematory designers utilized and experimented with during the bricks and mortar era?
Coal, oil and electricity, coal and coke and wood
What did Herb Hargrave suggest as a way to compete with cemetery based crematories?
suggest selling the prospective families on the nice, not on the tort
Which crematory paved the way for the West Coast revolution in the American way of cremation
Odd Fellows Crematory 1895
When and where did the columbarium come to the Midwest?
Chicago's Bohemian National Cemetary
In the 1930s, how did the Bohemian National Cemetery foreshadow the modern develpment of funeral personalization that would not begin to occur until the late 20th Century?
By enccouranging families to decorate the niches with photographs and flowers
When did columbarium take hold across the country
the 1930's
In the 1930s, where would the practice of inurning in a columbarium be most likely to occur?
the West Coast
What was the preferred method of disposition for cremated remains during the Gilded Age
scattering
When was the Gilded Age
Late 19th century
The Cremation Association of America (CAA) was founded when, and who served as its first president?
Detroit, 1913, Dr Hugo Erichsen
What group did Hugo Erichsen work to win over?
Undertakers
What group did Hugo Erichsen consider a lost cause
Cemetarians
Why did cemetery crematory emerge as the dominant American model?
they realized it made sense to profit from cremation, through urn burials and sales of columbarium niches or burial plots and that interring urns used less space and more efficient and profitable than interring caskets
How did cremationist make peace with the cemetery?
by embracing memorialization
By 1939, which group ran most crematories in the US?
cemeteries
How did cremation change from the 19th century to the 20th Century?
cremation evolved from society-ran independents to privately managed cemetery crematories
What rituals characterized American cremations through the early 20th century?
attendance at the crematory was the norm; peepholes were a standard feature of early crematory furnaces
How did crematory services compare to traditional graveside commital services thru the early 20th century?
they wer virtually identical to committals except for a few changes in liturgical language
Who was Frank Bates Flanner?
early 20th century undertaker and cremationist who conducted his cremations just as he would burials by washing, embalming, dressing, shaving and puttting the body in a casket and having pallbearers carry into the crematory where the rabbi or minister would coduct a committal service.
In the late 19th century, how did architects achieve designs that allow for more elegant chapels and dramatic exists for the corpse
by placing the working elements of the crematories in the basements, not in a separate room on same floor
What evident refutes the thesis that cremation in the late 19th and early 20th century promoted secularization?
the prominence of the chapels in the cremation facilities of this time perioud
How did the crematory rites in the early 20th century differ from the grand, ornate crematory chapels where they were performed?
cremation customs eliminated superflous displays and developed a simplistic spiritual style
What trend in cremation ritualization began in the teens and 20's
the distancing of family and friends from the act of cremation itself, making what started as a public affair, private with Baron De Palm
Describe the distancing of family and friends from the act of cremation in the teens and twenties.
covering of the peephole and relocating the key cremation rites from the furnace rooms to the cremation chapel and later to the columbarium
Describe some of the 20th century efforts to make cremation portable
The hygenic wagon and portable furnace patented in 1907, ran on railroad
What are some of the innovations in urn design in the early 20th century?
bust shaped with hole in back of head to recieve ashes; a crystal masonic urn with slot for photo of deceased
During the brick and mortar era and by 1940 was fuel source was utilized by crematory engineers?
oil
Why did oil burning furnaces eventually replace earlier models
Oil retorts were more economical
When and where did the practice of cremating casketed bodies begin?
The Odd Fellows Crematory, San Francisio, CA 1897
During the first decades of the 20th century, which group that creatively combined Hindu and Islam gave cremation a boost?
Immigrant Sikhs
Who pushed the retort button to commence cremation in the Sikh culture?
the closest relative
What disposition of cremated remains was utilized by the Sikhs?
Scattering into a body of water, the Pacific, a river or ocean back in India
Compare the growth of cremation in the 19th and 20th century in the US.
far more modest in the first half of the 20th century than it had been in the last quarter of the 19th
Factors that inhibited cremation's growth of the 20th century
cultural inertia, high capital expenses, popularization of lawn-park and memorial park cemeteries which addressed overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and ugliness of graveyards, undertaker who wanted to protect thier trade
Which groups of supported cremation during the Bricks and Mortar Period?
Physicians, sanitarians, (liberal) clergymen, lawyers, scholars, journalists, writers and artists
Which branch of Judaism was most accepting of cremation during the late 19th and early 20th Century?
Reform
What event caused Jewry's acceptance of cremation to shift to rejection after the 1940s?
The world learned about the atrocities wrought by the Nazis and their death camp crematoria during World War II
What ethnic group was most inclined toward cremation in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries
Germans
Why were German Americans more attracted to cremation in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries than actual Germans still living in Germany?
Perhaps the strength of free thought in Germany or the aspiration by German immigrants to achieve genteel status in their adopted homeland
How did the cremation movement remake itself in the first half of the 20th Century to survive?
By adopting a strategy of accommodation cooperation rather than confrontation and resistance, dropping early radical arguments and demonstrating that cremation was in accordance with religion and not an enemy of spirituality. Cremationists also tried to work with undertakers as the funeral industry gathered steam
How did crematory operators seek reconciliation with undertakers in the early 20th Century?
By seeking the cooperation of funeral directors and by urging customers to utilize the services of an undertaker -- especially in regards to the casket purchase
What factors strained relations between funeral directors and cremationists in the 1920s and 1930s
The Great Depression of 1929 reduced profit margins at funeral homes, and hence relations between undertakers and crematory operators. Forest Lawn added a mortuary to its cremation and cemetery facilities in 1933. The tendency to purchase inexpensive caskets for cremations in Oregon, Washington, and California cut into revenues in 1935
In the 1920s and 1930s, some cremationists believed in creating an integrated memorialization movement. What crafts did these cremationists seek to unite?
The crematory operator, funeral director, cemetery superintendent, casket maker, funeral florist, and mausoleum operator
Why did Cremationists distance themselves from Eastern religions during the Bricks and Mortar Period?
Cremationists realized that cremation would prosper more if their method was perceived to be in perfect harmony with Christian practices and principles
List the theological terms used by cremationists during the bricks and mortar period as they attempted to Christianize cremation.
"A last baptism by incandescent heat," the pure flame ascending to heaven was "the symbol of the Holy Spirit
How did many of America's first generation of cremationists handle the disposition of cremated remains?
By scattering
How did most cremationists in the 19th and early 20th centuries view cremation in context of disposition?
Most cremationists viewed cremation as final disposition, and NOT a preparation for burial or some other disposition
How did scattering cremated remains satisfy early cremationists theologically and practically
From a practicality standpoint, scattering dematerialized the dead, making memorialization difficult. Scattering was also economical as it obviated the needs for an urn, a columbarium niche, and perpetual care. Theologically, scattering kept with the notion that personal identify resided in spirit as opposed to the material husk of an embalmed bod
From a practicality standpoint, scattering dematerialized the dead, making memorialization difficult. Scattering was also economical as it obviated the needs for an urn, a columbarium niche, and perpetual care. Theologically, scattering kept with the notion that personal identify resided in spirit as opposed to the material husk of an embalmed bod
Burial
How did the trend away from scattering help the cremation movement?
The emphasis on memorialization at a sacred site accommodated traditional Christians for whom scattering was a scandal, death professionals for whom it was an economic threat, and women who historically tended the graves of kin
By the 20th Century, how had the cremation movement's agenda changed?
It had transitioned from a social reform to a business, evidenced by the urn newsworthiness of ordinary cremations, the demise of the three leading cremationist publications, and the defunction of the pioneering cremation societies
What did the cremation movement promote by the 1930s
Memorialization or the memorial idea. Cremation was not an alternative to burial, but a supplement to it
How did cremation memorialization in the United States differ between the West Coast and East Coast during the 1920s and 1930s
The East Coast bias was toward urn burial and the West Coast preference was for niches
The East Coast bias was toward urn burial and the West Coast preference was for niches
A) Rite before cremation; B) inurnment of cremated remains in an appropriate urn; C) placement of urn in a cemetery plot, columbarium niche, or mausoleum; D) rite of committal at place of memorialization; E) suitable marker at site
What practice was considered "a menace to the memorial idea"?
scattering
Why did crematory operators encourage the memorial idea and discourage scattering?
Memorialization increased profitability, did not threaten undertakers, and provided greater reverence for the deceased
Which groups carried the ideals of pioneering cremation societies of the Gilded Age into the beginning of the 21st Century and were the most conspicuous dissenters of the memorial idea?
Memorial Societies
Trace the origins of the memorial society movement.
The burial cooperatives of the American frontier, the mutual cremation societies of the Gilded Age, the burial clubs of medieval Europe, and even to the burial assistance compacts of the Israelites in captivity in Babylon
The burial cooperatives of the American frontier, the mutual cremation societies of the Gilded Age, the burial clubs of medieval Europe, and even to the burial assistance compacts of the Israelites in captivity in Babylon
The People's Memorial Association (PMA), established 1/12/1939
Who established the People's Memorial Association
The Reverend Fred Shorter and his nondenominational Congregational Church of the People
How did the memorial society way of cremation differ from the memorial idea?
They preferred direct cremation: quick and inexpensive incineration performed without embalming, viewing, expensive coffin, or funeral
What were the main criticisms memorial societies had for traditional funerals?
Traditional funerals were too expensive and materialistic
Explain the range of services memorial societies provided during the Bricks and Mortar Period.
Some memorial societies merely educated the public about simple and inexpensive alternatives to traditional funerals, others contracted with local funeral directors to provide members with inexpensive death care, some offered cremation only, and others included simple burial and body donation
What was the likely religious affiliation of memorial society members?
Unitarians, Quakers, and other liberal Protestants
What were memorial societies trying to accomplish
An alternative to the cremate-and-memorialize strategy of the new pragmatic businesses and a return to the cremate-and-scatter approach of the reform-minded pioneers. They also sought to take control over cremation ritualization away from crematory operators and funeral directors and put it back in the hands of lay people like themselves
What did the success of the memorial society movement in the bricks and mortar period demonstrate
Americans were crafting many ways of cremation
By the 1920s what had occurred to the sanitation argument formerly used to justify cremation
New studies had brought the connection between cemeteries and disease into question, causing the sanitation arguments used by cremationists to be abandoned and replaced
How did cremationists promote their practice after they stopped championing it as the sanitary alternative to burial
They claimed that cremation was beautiful and burial ugly.
What was the nation's most influential, pro-cremation document in the bricks and mortar period and who authored it
The autobiographical "Light Like the Sun" by Mrs. Frances Newton
Explain the growth in cremation between World War II and 1963.
The cremation rate had stagnated at 3.7 percent
What trends seemed to work against the rising use of cremation after World War II?
A booming postwar economy and affluent society that preferred garish and expensive to simplicity and economy
Who were the three individuals that reversed the declining cremation trend in 1963
Pope Paul VI, Jessica Mitford, and Lee Harvey Oswald
Explain the impact the aggiornamento during the Second Vatican Council had on cremation.
The aggiornamento or updating transformed Vatican disapproval of cremation to toleration.
The aggiornamento or updating transformed Vatican disapproval of cremation to toleration.
The American Way of Death described funeral service as a useless, recent invention of greedy traders who sought to sell expensive merchandise to families. Smart consumers would opt for cheaper and simpler death rites like cremation
According to Prothero, what were the two complaints about American funeral service identified in Mitford's book
Economics : funeral directors were sleazy salesmen fattening their wallets by ripping off unsuspecting relatives of the corpse; Aesthetics: what funeral directors sold was tasteless and fake
What federal agency inadvertently helped cremation by scrutinizing funeral director practices?
The FTC
. In What year did the FTC publish its final report on the funeral service industry?
1978
How did the NFDA's and the American Cemetery Association's reaction to Mitford and the FTC affect public sentiment toward funeral directors
By fighting back and defending their livelihoods instead of admitting to an error or two, funeral directors fattened Mitford's royalty checks and further swayed public opinion against funeral directors
In the 1950s and 1960s, how did pro-funeral industry publications like American Cemetery and American Funeral Director label critics of funeral service like Jessica Mitford?
As communists seeking to bring down church and state
. Who was Roger Waltrip and what role did he play in the debate between consumer advocates like Mitford and defenders of traditional funerals.
Roger Waltrip was the chairman of Service Corporation International (SCI) who advocated the social, psychological and religious value of traditional funerals
According to Prothero, why did the FTC's 1978 regulations amount to little more than disclosure requirements?
Because of the NFDA and death care's strong lobby which urged Congress to block the FTC from implementing any reforms
In the two decades that followed the publication of The American Way of Death, how did the funeral industry deal with cremation?
Aside from the occasional article about cremation in trade journals, the funeral industry ignored the practice and concentrated on the evil triumvirate of Mitford, memorial societies, and the FTC
How did cremation entrepreneurs view the average cost of funerals?
They viewed it as an opportunity rather than a scourge
They viewed it as an opportunity rather than a scourge
By masquerading as cooperatives
Name two of the most successful for-profit cremation businesses that masqueraded as cooperatives during the cremation boom?
Neptune Society and Telophase
Explain how the new independent cremation businesses of the cremation boom threatened funeral directors, cemetarians, monument makers, and flourists.
By offering no frills cremations without funeral plots, markers or bouquets
Who pioneered the Telophase Society and pioneered direct cremation for profit?
Thomas B. Weber
What was the significance of the amount the Telophase Society charged for cremation?
The amount, $250, was roughly equivalent to the Social Security Death Benefit
Who was the CEO of the Neptune Society and when was it established
Chiropractor Charles Denning, 1977
What was Charles Denning's nick name
Colonel Sanders of the death industry or Colonel Cinders
What distinguished the Telophase Society from the Neptune Society?
Telophase Society only offered discount, no frills, direct cremation, the Neptune Society offered a complete cremation menu rather than one, cut-rate course
How did funeral directors and other death care providers react to the success of direct cremation
By disparaging firms like Telophase and Neptune as "bake and shake", "burn and scatter", "disposal services", and trying to legislate them out of business
How did the funeral industry's response to Mitford, the FTC, and the new cremation entrepreneurs mirror the critics' responses to cremation in the Guilded Age?
Funeral directors denounced cremation as secularization and its supporters as secularists, godless, communists, atheist's, and pagans (
. In the 1960s and 1970s, as in the 1880s and 1890s, how were the critics of cremation wrong?
The cremation movement fostered not secularization, but diversification of religion and ritualization
According to Prothero, what does the influence of Mitford, the FTC, and the memorial society movement suggest was the primary reason for the post-1963 cremation boom?
Economic considerations
Besides economic considerations, what was another reason for the post-1963 cremation boom?
The rise of environmentalism
Economic considerations and environmentalism played important roles in the post-1963 cremation boom, but what aspect of cremation had the greatest impact on its growing popularity at the expense of burial?
It was simpler and more authentic
How was President Kennedy's funeral a nod to the emerging funerary style of the 1960s?
Although Kennedy's funeral was extremely elaborate, his closed casket signaled a shift toward simplicity that would transcend multiple facets of American culture, including funerals, afterwards
What aspects of President Eisenhower's funeral in 1969 support Prothero's claim that Americans sought simpler, "Mitfordian" style funerals
Eisenhower chose to be buried at the modest Chapel of Meditation in Abilene, Kansas, rather than at Arlington National Cemetery, he selected a simple, $80 G.I.-style casket, his service was brief, and his family requested charitable donations be sent in lieu of flowers
. What charges made by funeral directors against Mitford during their three-front battle against her, the memorial societies, and the FTC, bare some truth?
Mitford was an ethnocentric pushing "a white, Anglo-Saxon Protestant view of funeral ritual with no regard for ethnic, racial, or religious considerations" and she was a closet aristocrat who viewed herself as more knowledgeable than common folks
Cremation in the 1960s and beyond was a modern revival of what two movements that historian John Higham argues Americans have wrestled with for centuries?
Purity and progressive era moralism
What were the counterpoints to embalming and burial that emerged after 1963?
Cremation and memorial service
What did the countercultural cremations that emerged after 1963 express in their death rites?
What did the countercultural cremations that emerged after 1963 express in their death rites?
List five terms that describe cremation according to Countercultural Cremationists.
List five terms that describe cremation according to Countercultural Cremationists.
What served as a metaphor to the purity of John Lennon's departing spirit at the gathering in Manhattan Central Park?
An ascending bouquet of white ballons
. How did John Lennon's wife, singer Yoko Ono, show she had been influenced by consumer critiques of burial and counter-cultural commitments of Mitford and memorial societies?
In lieu of flowers, she asked for donations to the Spirit Foundation, and she wanted no public funeral
Why did Ono ultimately announce a memorial service for John Lennon?
Because of the overwhelming public outpouring of grief and affection
What was unique about the location of John Lennnon's memorial ceremony?
t was to take place anywhere and everywhere
. According to Prothero, what did Ono's "no public funeral" pronouncement do and how did cremation function in the worldwide process of memorializing John Lennon?
Both served to direct attention from Lennon's bullet-ridden body to his spirit. A body must be somewhere, but a spirit can be anywhere
What important turn in American religion and culture does Lennon's cremation highlight?
The ongoing pluralization of U.S. religion and ritualization
What was the alternative view of self-edging its way from the margins into the mainstream of American culture that Lennon and Ono epitomized?
"I have a body, but I am a soul"
. Explain the unique disposition of Timothy Leary's and Gene Roddenberry's cremated remains?
They were sent into orbit along with 22 other clients by Celestis Earthview Commomorative Spaceflight Service
By the 1990s when cremation had gone mainstream, what did evangelist Billy Graham conclude about cremation?
That it posed no threat to resurrection
What was the nationwide percentage of cremation in 1999?
25%
In the 1990s, which countries exceeded the U.S. in cremation and which nations trailed the U.S. in cremation rates?
Governments that actively promoted cremation -- Japan, Great Brittain, Scandinavia, and Australia exceeded the U.S...-- Spain, Italy -- trailed the U.S.
Why did the cremation rate flatten out in the 1990s?
Because of scandal -- some crematory operators were accused of cremating bodies en masse, commingling the ashes, harvesting gold from the teeth of crematory corpses, etc.
What groups remained opposed to cremation through the end of the millenium?
Conservative Christians, Muslims, most Jews, African Americans, and hispanics who clung to old-time religious beliefs
Which branch of Judaism did cremation make some in-roads with in the 1990s?
Reform
. How did the Order of Christian Funerals, published by the Vatican in 1997, affect cremation?
It made considerable allowances for cremation, stated preference for burial, and recommended funeral masses take place before rather than after cremation. The Church insisted on "a worthy vessel" for cremated remains in a grave, mausoleum, or columbarium -- an anti-scattering policy
What was the significance of JFK Jr's cremation?
It was the highest profile Catholic cremation and his cremated remains were scattered at sea
What were the two opposing approaches most funeral directors took to cremation in the 1960s and 1970's
What were the two opposing approaches most funeral directors took to cremation in the 1960s and 1970s
What happened to the strategies of denial and resistance many funeral directors used against cremation in the 1980s?
They began to give way to more accommodative approaches as the cremation rate moved up rapidly
What became the most common site of crematory installation in the 1980s
Funeral Homes
Who was the biggest booster to the funeral director's embrace of cremation in the 1990s?
Michael Kubasak, owner of Valley Funeral Home in trend setting Burbank, CA, and author of "Cremation and the Funeral Director:"
How did Kubasak suggest funeral directors should change the way they thought of themselves
Funeral directors needed to stop thinking of themselves as casket salesmen and start self-identifying as funeral service providers
How was Michael Kubasak successful at elevating cremation at his own funeral home?
By increasing the number of of cases purchasing caskets from 12% (1981-1983) to 71% (1987-1989) and having ceremonies from 22% (1981-1983) to 69% (1987-1989)
How did Tom Snyder of Joseph Gawler's and Sons in Washington, DC increase casket sales to cremation cases?
By requiring families to identify deceased relatives in their chosen cremation casket prior to the cremation
What were the two clear pitches promoted by death care providers in the 1990s in regards to cremation?
What were the two clear pitches promoted by death care providers in the 1990s in regards to cremation?
Give some examples of how the death care industry provided cremation families with options.
Where previously, only a few standard style urns were available, a huge selection of urns, keepsake pendants, cremation containers and urn vaults evolved
What percentage of cremations were scattered in the 1990s
Over 50%
What were some of the unique places and ways cremated remains were scattered in the 1990s?
Cremated remains were scattered at race tracks, national parks, Disney World, Wrigley Field and by hot air balloons, planes, and boats, in shotgun shells, fishing lures, duck decoys, and golf clubs
From the time of Baron De Palm, through the Great Depression, cremation had been seen as an inexpensive alternative to burial. How did this change in the 1990s?
Death care providers realized that the typical cremation customer was affluent and more than willing to spend money to see loved ones go out in style
. How was the new style of ritual embraced by baby boomers characterized in the 1990s?
By simplicity, spontaneity, informality, flexibility, improvisation, participation and personalization (
. Who seized authority for the new rituals embraced by baby boomers in the 1990s?
Lay people seized authority from medical, funerary, and religious experts
Who is Lisa Carlson and what did she write?
Lisa Carlson was executive director of Funeral and Memorial Societies of America and wrote the do-it-yourself manual, Caring for the Dead: Your Final Act of Love
By the end of the 20th Century how had the standard funeral offered by funeral directors changed?
Cookie-cutter funerals gave way to customized memorial services and the "fun funeral"
While traditional funerals seek to repair a community torn asunder by death, what is the goal of the alternative rites that have evolved since the 1990s?
To celebrate an individual life
What did the 1995 national telephone survey of American attitudes toward ritualization and memorialization find out about people who preferred cremation?
That 83% of the survey sample that preferred cremation wanted some kind of end-of-life ceremony
What does the trend away from formalized religions signify according to a growing number of sociologists?
Not secularization, but religious transformation
What does the shift away from the undertaker or priest directed funeral to a family directed rite suggest?
Those families are attempting to instill new spiritual significance into rites that according to many have become stale through repetition and formalism
What were the "Eight Key Trends Affecting Cremation" identified by CANA in 1998?
People are dying older
Migration to retirement locations is increasing
Cremation is becoming more acceptable as a normal form of disposition
Environmental considerations are becoming more important
Level of education is rising
Ties to tradition are becoming weaker
Regional differences are diminishing
Origin of immigrants is changing
People are dying older
Migration to retirement locations is increasing
Cremation is becoming more acceptable as a normal form of disposition
Environmental considerations are becoming more important
Level of education is rising
Ties to tradition are becoming weaker
Regional differences are diminishing
Origin of immigrants is changing
Because cremation customers tended to be affluent
According to its supporters, how does cremation -- when combined with the broader cultural shift toward do-it-yourself rites -- allow for greater personalization?
By avoiding the extravagance of burial and embalming, and allowing baby boomers to do death in their own way
According to Prothero, why had cremation become stylish by the end of the 20th Century?
Because simplicity was once again fashionable
In which state do open funeral pyres still occur today
In which state do open funeral pyres still occur today
Which two states lead the nation in cremation volume
California and Florida