Biology 121 Final-Terminology
Terms in this set (50)
Microorganisms that are similar to bacteria in size and simplicity of structure, but differ in molecular organization. Considered to be an ancient form of life that evolved separately from bacteria and blue-green algae.
uni and multicellular organisms. Nucleus is an enclosed membrane and where chromosomes are found. They are bigger than prokaryotes and contain organelles
Multicellular living organisms that synthesize nutrients in leaves by photosynthesis using chlorophyll. Have vacuoles and chloroplasts.
Unicellular organisms that do not contain a nucleus and DNA is not enclosed in a membrane. Chromosomes are found in the cytosol and they also do not contain organelles.
A living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and a nervous system to rapidly respond to stimuli
Process in which beneficial traits that are heritable become more common in successive generation
The branch of genetics concerned with the hereditary makeup of population.
The study of changes in gene frequencies in population of organisms and the effects of those changes on evolution and adaptation
An evolutionary process in which one species splits into one or more species.
Breeding plants/animals to produce desirable traits. Artificially mated or cross-pollinated with organisms with similar desired traits.
A concept that species cannot successfully interbreed with another species b/c
1. Prezygotic barrier: Habitat isolation & Temporal isolation[different mating times/seasons]
2. Postzygotic barrier: Zygote cannot be developed viable after fertilization
Strong bond that is formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
Weaker bond (partial positive hydrogen atom) from one polar molecule that is attracted to a partial negative atom from another molecule
Stronger bond where electrons are transferred forming ions that are attracted to each other
Van der Waals interaction
Non polar molecules have short lived (transient) partial negative and partial positive regions
Monosaccharides ad polysaccharides
Mono= Any class of sugars (glucose & fructose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simple sugar.
Poly=Many monosaccharides linked together to form long polymers [Starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin]
Nucleic acids and DNA/RNA
Nucleic acids= Complex organic substances present in all living cells especially DNA/RNA whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
DNA=Self-replicating material present in all living cells as the main constitute of chromosomes, carrier of genetic material
RNA= Ribonucleic acid, acid that is present in all living cells, messenger that carries instructions from DNA.
Glycosidic bond, Peptide bond, and Phosphodiester bond
Glycosidic= Covalent bond that joins carbohydrates (sugars) molecules to another group
Peptide= A chemical bond formed between molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the among group of another molecule releasing H2O
Phosphodiester= A chemical bond of the kind joining successive sugar molecules in polynucleotides.
Lipids=do not form polymers, composed of mostly hydrogen and carbon atoms, non polar and very insoluble in water [Fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes]
Chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water. Usually achieved by breaking covalent bonds in the compound and inserting a water molecule across the bond
Specific types of condensation reactions where two molecules come together to form a larger molecule, but results in the loss of H2O
Energy of Activation
The minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified chemical reaction
Builds up molecules
Breaks down molecules
Both transport large molecules, viruses, or cell debris
Endo=Process of capturing a substance or particle from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane and bringing it into the cell
Exo= Describes the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell
Process where a substance is able to pass through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a protein [Higher concentration to lower]
The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of lower concentration to higher--requires energy and assistance from enzymes
Transport of substances across a membrane with assistance of a carrier, molecule/protein. Diffusion from higher concentration to lower. [No energy required, so spontaneous]
Net movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration
Network of membranes that form flattened, fluid-filled tubules or cisternae. Have many functions including synthesizing and folding
"Power-house" of the cell. Responsible for the generation of ATP through the process of cellular respiration
"Post-office" of the cell. Responsible for transporting, modifying, and packaging proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations
"Stomach" of a cell. Responsible for breaking down macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids) through phagocytosis and autophagy
Breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid- Occurs in cytosol [One stage of cellular respiration]
Only stage of cellular respiration that requires energy-Stage that produces the most amount of ATP and also production of water. [Takes place in Mitochondria]
Citric acid cycle
Another stage of cellular respiration-also known as the Krebs Cycle-->Sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration. Outputs=CO2, H2O, ATP and input-Acetyl CoA. [Takes place in Mitochondria]
Break down of pyruvate
Outputs= CO2, Acetyl CoA, and NADH (NADH is used by cells to make ATP)
Is cellular respiration under low oxygen: Ethanol or lactic acid are byproducts made in the process
The gene that is always expressed in homozygous dominant and heterozygous
One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arises by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome
Genes that are only expressed if two copies of that gene are present [homozygous recessive]
Contain two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
A unit of hereditary that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristics of the offspring. [Make up proteins that make up the traits/phenotype of offspring]
Amino acids and proteins
Amino acids= Simple organic compounds that contain both a carboxyl and amino group
Proteins= Nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are essential part of all living organisms, structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc. and as enzymes and antibodies
Cell division that results in TWO daughter cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. Happens in all cells of the body, except reproductive [Somatic]
Cell division that results in FOUR daughter cells, each one with only 1/2 the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Produced only in the sex cells, gametes [Germ]
Process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. Replication is an essential process bc whenever the cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic material, DNA, as the parent cell
Process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copies into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) [Main role=making RNA]
Process where the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids and polypeptide chain. Process where transcription in which DNA sequence is copies into mRNA [Main role=Making protein]
Contains most of the Eukaryotic cell's DNA. A dense organelle, typically single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing genetic material