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141 terms

CNA definitions 11-19

CNA
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Abnormality
Condition different from the normal.
Anatomy
Parts of the body
Anterior
Front
Atrophy
The wasting away of the unused muscle tissues.
Bursa
A pad of cartilage that keeps bones from rubbing together.
Bursitis
Inflammation of the bursa at a joint
Contracture
The permanent shortening of a muscle.
Disc
Cushions of tissue between the bones at a joint.
Dislocation
A change in the normal alignment of bones at a joint.
Fracture
A broken bone.
Multiple Sclerosis
A chronic degenerative disease of the nervous system resulting in the inability to move.
Bladder
Urinary organ which retains urine until it is excreted.
Cystitis
Infection of the .
Excrete
To eliminate or expel from the body, such as waste or harmful material.
Feces (fecal matter)
Solid or semi-solid body waste.
Immobile
Unable to move.
Incontinent
Unable to control functions of bowel or bladder.
Indwelling
Staying inside the body.
Indwelling Catheter
Tube inserted into the bladder to drain the urine.
Kidneys
Two organs in the lower back which filter the blood.
Nephron
A microscopic filtering unit in the kidneys
Nephritis
Infection of kidney.
Nutrients
Substance in food that the body uses to provide energy and build tissue.
Prostate
A small gland that surrounds the urethra in men.
Trauma
A wound or injury.
Ureters
Tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urethra
Tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.
Urine
Fluid waste formed by the kidneys and excreted from the body.
Cyanosis
Bluish color of skin due to lack of oxygen.
Dermis
Inner layer of skin.
Eczema
Dry, reddish, scaly patches on the skin.
Elasticity
Ability to expand and contract.
Epidermis
Outer layer of skin.
Erythema
Redness of skin.
Evaporate
Give off moisture.
Follicle
Tube holding the hair root.
Integumentary
Outer covering; skin, hair, nails.
Lubricate
To oil or grease.
Perspiration
Sweat.
Podiatrist
Foot doctor.
Pressure Sores
Area of the skin that break open due to constant pressure.
Psoriasis
Reddish scaly patches, usually on elbows and knees.
Shingles
Scaly painful patches on the sides, caused by a virus.
Muscular Dystrophy
A progressive crippling disease of the muscle.
Osteoporosis
A condition that causes a decrease in size and strength of the bones.
Paralysis
Loss of voluntary control over a muscle.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Inflammation of the joints, causing limitation of movement.
Sprain
A torn or stretched ligament or tendon
Physiology
How the body work.
Posterior
Back.
Angina
acute paint in the chest from low blood supply to the heart
arrhythmia
Abnormal heart rhythms
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arterioles
tiny arteries which carry blood from large arteries to capillaries
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
atrium
upper chamber of the heart
blood pressure
the force of the blood pressing against artery walls
capillaries
small blood vessels which carry nutrients to individual cells
congestive heart failure
gradual loss of the hearts ability to pump blood
heart attack (myocardial infarction)
death of tissue in the heart due to a lack of blood supply
hypertension
high blood pressure
lymph vessels
structures which collect body fluid
lymph nodes
small glands which filter body fluid
pacemaker
initiates and transmits electrical impulse to cause heart to contract
plasma
fluid portion of the blood
platelets
elements of blood which form clot
red blood cells
red colored cells in the blood that carry oxygen
septum
tissue dividing heart in half
stroke (cerebral vascular accident or cva)
sudden stoppage of the blood supply to an area of the brain
varicose vein
weakened swollen vein, usually seen in the legs
veins
blood vessels which carry unoxygenated blood back to the heart
ventricle
lower chamber of the heart
venules
tiny veins which carry blood from capillaries to large veins
white blood cells
the white colored cell in the blood that fight infection
alveoli
tiny air sacs in the lungs
aspiration
inhaling of food, liquid, mucus, or vomitus into air passages
asthma
a disease of the bronchi, causing narrowing air passages and difficulty breathing
bronchi
tubes that connect of the trachea to lungs
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)
a lung condition arising from repeated injury of the tissue, with tissues becoming less elastic and breathing becoming more difficult
cilia
microscopic hair like appendages that sweep foreign matter out of the trachea and bronchi
diaphragm
muscle which separates the chest cavity from the abdomen
emphysema
a condition of the lungs in which bronchioles become plugged with mucus and breathing becomes difficult
epiglottis
tissue that closes during swallowing to cover the top of the trachea
external respiration
the exchange of gases between the body and the outside world
inflamed
red, swollen
internal respiration
the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
larynx
voice box
lungs
two organs in the chest cavity responsible for exchanging gases with the blood
metabolism
all physical and chemical processes involved in sustaining life
pneumonia
a disease caused by a virus or bacteria in which the lung tissue is inflamed and the airways fill with fluid
pharynx
throat
pleura
lining of chest cavity
respiratory system
organs involved in the transfer of gases between the body and the environment
respiration
breathing
trachea
windpipe
bifocal
two different prescription in one eyeglass lens
cataract
clouding of the lens of the eye
environment
the world around you
glaucoma
increased pressure in the eye, due to the inability of the fluid in the eye (vitreous humor) to circulate properly
myopia
difficulty seeing things that are far away
peripheral vision
vision seen to the side while looking straight ahead
presbyopia
decrease in the ability of the eye to focus
presbycusis
hearing loss for high pitched sounds
senses
sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch
sensory system
eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin
stimulus
action that causes a response
tinnitus
constant ringing in the ear
anus
the opening of the rectum located between the buttocks
bile
substance manufactured by liver, stored by gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats
bowel
the intestines
colon
the large intestine
defecation
elimination fecal matter through the anus
digest
to break down food substances
duodenum
the first loop of small intestines where most of digestion occurs
enema
insertion of fluid into the rectum and colon
feces (fecal matter)
solid or semi solid body waste
gastric juices
digestive fluids secreted by the stomach
gastrointestinal
referring to the stomach and intestines
glucose
simple sugar to which food in converted
insulin
hormone secreted by pancreas
laxative
a substance that aids defecation
peristalsis
rhythmic contractions of the intestine that help move food along
rectum
the lowest part of the large intestine that connects to the anus
sphincter
muscles that contracts to close a body opening
toxins
waste products released by disease producing organisms
villi
tiny finger like projection in the duodenum which absorbs digested food particles and release them into the bloodstream
aphasia
loss of language or verbal communication
chronic brain syndrome (Alzheimer's type dementia)
large areas of the brain stop functioning, causing memory loss, fear and poor judgment
dementia
mental deterioration, loss of ability to think clearly
equilibrium
balance
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body
hemisphere
half of a round mass of tissue
linear
following in order along a line
neurons
specialized cells of the nervous system
Parkinson's disease
disorder of the nervous system resulting in body stiffness and shakiness
peripheral
away from the center of something
reflex
an automatic response to stimulation
spatial
oriented in space
stroke (cerebral vascular accident )
sudden stoppage of the blood supply to an area of the brain
vertebrae
bones of the spine