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HIST 1103 Final Exam
Terms in this set (30)
"Share the Wealth"
This was the program proposed by Senator Huey P. Long from Louisiana, one of the demagogues that appeared during the winter of 1933-1934. The program promised to make "Every Man a King." Every family was to receive $5,000, supposedly at the expense of the prosperous.
Battle of Okinawa
20,195 American casualties. 77,000 to 110,000 Japanese casualties. Unlike other islands, Okinawa remained populated during the battle which led to over 100,00 civilian deaths. Japanese also began employing kamikaze attacks.
Formed in Oakland in response to police brutality. Most known for advocating armed self-defense. California Governor Ronald Reagan supported restrictions on gun rights in response. However largely focused on forming schools, clinics, and other programs. Mostly destroyed by the FBI and police campaigns.
Brown V. Board of Ed
Combination of five cases from four states challenging segregation and school funding. Oliver brown challenged topeka segregation's when daughter could not attend school close to home. "Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." Court ordered in 1955 segregation ended with "all deliberate speed" rather than immediately.
Bush proposed a war on terror, with no defined enemy or timeline. In October 2001 the US invaded Afghanistan and overthrew the Taliban government. In his State of the Union speech in 2002 Bush labeled North Korea, Iran, and Iraq the "Axis of Evil." Bush had little evidence for his claims and none had any connections to 9/11.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibited racial discrimination in employment, privately owned public accommodations, hospitals and schools. Included a provision banning discrimination on the basis of sex, an attempt to derail the bill. LBJ acknowledged the passage "delivered the South to the Republican Party."
Cuban Missile Crisis
It began October 14th, 1962 and ended on the 28th. It was a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and was the moment when the two superpowers came closest to nuclear conflict. The crisis was unique in a number of ways, featuring calculations and miscalculations as well as direct and secret communications and miscommunications between the two sides. The dramatic crisis was also characterized by the fact that it was primarily played out at the White House and the Kremlin level with relatively little input from the respective bureaucracies typically involved in the foreign policy process.
A foreign policy during the 1950s to 1980s that states if one one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then surrounding countries would follow. It was introduced by Eisenhower in 1954. This theory was specific to Asia. It was central to the US policy of containment. Eisenhower adopted this theory because he was concerned about global communism.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Passed in 1917 and 1918. Prohibited spying, surveillance, and any attempt to interfere wIth the draft, or making "false statements" against the military. 2,000 Americans arrested in 1918. Eugene Debs arrested after an anti-war speech in Canton, Ohio. He was sentenced 10 years in jail.
First Hundred Days
This is the term applied to President Roosevelt's first three months in taking office. During this time, FDR had managed to get Congress to pass an unprecedented amount of new legislation that would revolutionize the role of the federal government from that point on. This era saw the passage of bills aimed at repairing the banking system and restoring America's faith in the economy, starting government works projects to employ those out of work, offering subsidies for farmers, and devising a plan to aid in the recovery of the nation's industrial sector.
In response to the secret treaties, Wilson issued US plans and goals for the war. Major points included self-determination, open seas, open diplomacy and free trade. Also called for a "general association of nations" to counter future issues. Set the agenda for the peace conference that ended the war.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Iran Contra Affair
Contras were anti-communists in Nicaragua. Congress barred military aid. Reagan secretly approved selling arms to Iran to secure the release of prisoners. CIA Director William Casey and Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North diverted funds to support the Contras. 11 members of the administration were either convicted or pleaded guilty to perjury or destruction of evidence. Reagan denied knowledge of any of this. This is one of the biggest scandals during Reagan's presidency.
Korematsu v. United States
During World War II, Presidential Executive Order gave the military authority to exclude citizens of Japanese ancestry from areas deemed critical to national defense. A Japanese man remained in California and violated Civilian Exclusion Order. The Court sided with the government and held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed man's rights.
Lend Lease Acts
December 1940. Post-election FDR announced US would be an "arsenal of democracy." FDR pushed Congress to approve Lend-Lease to support China and British forces. Bill allowed military aid as long as countries returned it after the war. FDR also cut off Japanese assets in the US and suspended trade.
Joe McCarthy, Senator from Wisconsin, alleged in 1950 to have a list of 205 communists in the State Department. McCarthy never named names and the charges grew increasingly exaggerated. McCarthy lost support when he went after the Army. McCarthy was censored but highlighted the fear of communism in America.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Supported by Clinton and passed by Congress in 1993. Created a free trade zone with the US, Canada, and Mexico. Opposed by labor unions and environmentalists. Companies moved manufacturing to Mexico to exploit cheaper labor and lower environmental standards. Movement prompted anti-globalization protest.
December 7, 1941. Japanese attacked US military forces on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. 2,000 american servicemen died. 187 aircraft and 18 naval ships, including 8 battleships destroyed. US aircraft carriers were not present. Congress approved war against Japan the next day, 477 to 1. Germany declared war on the US the next day.
Top tax rates under reagan were cut from 70% to 28%. Reagan argued lower taxes would encourage people to work harder because they could keep more money. Coupled with high interest rates to curb inflation, Reagan hoped the policies would encourage private investment. "Supply side economics" v. "trickle-down economics." Initially Reagan's policies caused the worst recession since the 1930s. Inflation declined from 13.5% in 1981 to 3.5% in 1988. Tax cuts and increased defense spending tripled the national debt to $2.7 trillion. Deregulation savings and loans nearly bankrupted the Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, which was bailed out with $250 billion by congress.
Fundamentalists convinced 5 states to outlaw the teaching of evolution. John Scopes agreed to teach evolution in Tennessee so the ACLU could challenge the law. Clarence Darrow served as the defense attorney against William Jennings Bryan. Media spectacle.
Second New Deal
This was a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs. This included Social Security which was a system that provided pensions and guaranteed regular payments for many Americans age 65 and older.
SS Saint Louis
On May 13, 1939, 900 Jews boarded a transatlantic liner ship to flee Nazi Germany. This was they would not be sent to concentration camps and ghettos, but neither US, or Cuba would except them. They were forced to return to Europe. This showed world-wide anti-semitism.
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment.
The Bonus Army
A group of almost 20,000 World War I veterans who were hard-hit victims of the depression, who wanted what the government owed them for their services and "saving" democracy. They marched to Washington and set up public camps and erected shacks on vacant lots. They tried to intimidate Congress into paying them, but Hoover had them removed by the army, which shed a negative light on Hoover.
The Double V Campaign
Campaign popularized by American Black Leaders during WW2 emphasizing the need for double victory: over Germany and Japan and also over racial prejudice in the US. Many blacks were fought in WW2 were disappointed that the America they returned to still hate racial tension.
The Great Migration
This was the migration of African Americans in the South to go to the North or the Midwest in 1910-1960. The push factors were escaping discrimination, segregation, Jim Crow laws, the boll weevil, and MS flood. The bool weevil infested all of the cotton and ruined it, causing less area for AA's to work on. One of the first companies that attracted southern black men was the Pennsylvania Rail Road Company. They inspired the black men to go North.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war. Gradually took out American troops and replaced them with South Vietnamese forces
Nixon viewed critics as possible threats and maintained an "enemies list." In June 1972 former members of his campaign were arrested for breaking into the DNC headquarters at the Watergate complex. In 1973 congress began to uncover a long campaign of wire tappings and political sabotage. In 1973 it became public that Nixon had recorded conversations in the oval office and white house. Nixon refused to turn the tapes over and Attorney General Elliott Richardson and his deputy resigned when Nixon fired Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox. The Supreme Court unanimously ordered the tapes released, and Nixon resigned in 1974 (there were sections missing from the tapes). Gerald Ford pardoned Nixon after assuming office.
Wilson ran for reelection on the promise of remaining out of the war. In March 1917 British officials turned over a telegram from Germany asking Mexico to join the war on the Central Powers side. In exchange, Germany would help reacquire land lost in the Mexican American war. Wilson asked for a declaration of war, which passed 82-6 in the senate and 373-50 in the house.
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