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environmental sociology exam 2
Terms in this set (123)
"The tragedy of the commons"
The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism
Climate and civilization
T/F: "normal environmentalism" is environmentalism you don't have to worry about because you just find yourself doing it anyway
T/F: There is an ideological link between the domination of nature and the domination women
over the past 30 years, public concern for the environment has declined sharply
Government agencies in the US correctly displayed the depletion of ozone in the atmosphere as a "hole" to urge action to decrease the release of CFC's
Rational risk assessment suggests that we should compare our best knowledge about the rates and probabilities of hazards and choose the least dangerous alternative
Conscientization is a term that describes how individuals can develop knowledge by drawing on their own experience to critically examine the world around them
Participatory development helps ensure that the local community is supportive of and invested in projects that link top-down and bottom-up approaches to environmental challenges
Which of the summarizes the "mom will pick up after us?" vision of the environment
a.) a sexist conception of how the environment cleans itself
b.)an idea of pollution management extended from women who magically make dirt disappear
c.) an acceptance of the risk of "overindulgent boys playing with the radioactive and polluting materials"
d.) all of the above
D. all of the above
The environmentalism of the poor focuses attention primarily on:
a.) economic survival
b.) the unequal distribution of environmental "bads"
c.) combing environmental concerns with economic concerns
d.) all of the above
B.) the unequal distribution of environmental "bads"
The book argues that under moral holism:
a.) environmental problems have emerged because we have tried to pretend that we are distinct from nature
b.)people are part of nature
c.)"follow nature" is superfluous advice
d.) all of the above
D.) all of the above
What does Ulrich Beck mean by a "risk society"? :
a.) a society of democratic ecological dialogue
b.) a society that accepts the rational choices presented to them
c.) a society of trust in experts
d.) a society of ear where we are more exposed to technological risks
D.) a society of ear where we are more exposed to technological risks
The A and B split is:
A.) the split between the ideal and the material
B.) the split between attitudes and behaviors
C.) the difference between what people say they value and believe, and how they act
D.) al of the above
D.) all of the above
_____ policies are usually perceived positively because they are perceived as "free gifts"
______ fixes focus on elements like more efficient engines or emission control devise to promote social change
What are the three main contemporary theories of environmental concern?
what is Inglehart's postmaterialism?
the movement of younger generations away from the materialist values to embrace postmaterialist values
Material vs. Postmaterial values
material= concerns about economic and physical security
postmaterial= greater emphasis on freedom, self-expression, quality of life including environmental concerns
what is the theory of generations for postmaterilaism?
as older generations dies off, postmaterialsim will increase in society
what are some criticisms with postmaterialism?
-cant account for environmentalism of poor
-wealthy in U.S. show lower levels of concern, contradictory to postmaterial thesis
- ecological threats are often material threats
who came up with the paradigm shift?
dunlap and colleagues
why are people slowly but steadily adopting a more environmentally aware view of he world?
-humans are no longer seen as exempt from environmental implications
- we are connected to the environment
human exceptionalism paradigm (HEP)
-human are unique among the earth's creatures, for they have culture
-culture can vary almost indefinitely and can change more rapidly than biological traits
-many human differences are socially induced rather than inborn
-progress can continue without limit, social problems can be solved.
New Environmental Paradigm (NEP)
-Humans remain on among many species that are interdependent in ecosystems
-humans are also shaped by cause, effect, and linkages in the web of nature
-the environment is finite which imposes restraints on human activities
-ecological laws cannot be repealed by human inventiveness to extend carrying capacity
criticisms of paradigm shift
-environmental ideology is complex
-what's the standard
-it is hard to identify material factors that have ideological consequence
who came up with ecological modernization? what did they say about it?
-Mol and colleagues
-"we have recently begun to overcome the opposition of economy and ecology that has so long prevented us from embracing environmental concern
what is ecological modernization
material conditions (environmental problems) shape ideas (those interests, ideas, and considerations) which in turn reshape material conditions
what is the importance of ecological rationality?
-through institutions but also individual practices
-more efficient appliances
-we are moving in a green direction through globalization
requires modernization as well
what are ecological modernization criticisms?
-primary criticism of term modernization
* perspective embedded within the dominant discourse
* only applied with any great success to few countries in Europe (Germany, Netherlands and Scandinavian countries)
-ecological modernization is used by governments ad corporations to cover up greenwashing
Who were the first to come up with the idea of nature and what did they refer to it as?
Who all played a roll in the discovery of the natural conscience
Greece, China and India, Rome
What did Greece believe about nature?
nature was cured of materialist desire and could become a source of moral guidance in a world of envy and greed
What did China and India believe about nature?
people do best when they allow themselves to be guided by Dao ("the way" ~ "natural"), not by human desire
What did Greek physis develop into centuries later and by whom?
What did the romans believe about the nature?
-to experience nature is to experience social innocence
-concern for nature cant be separated from concern about social interests, and how those shape our moral understandings
What was Thoreau's moral solution
-return the purer vision of nature
-nature as the wild, woods and winds; farms
Thoreau's Natural Other
-in wild was no society with which to conflict
-vision of an interest-free realm upon which to base a natural conscience
Thoreau's Natural Me
-he praised ignorance and recognition of how little we knew
-imagination of truer, more authentic self that we believe the natural others see in us, as opposed to the me that society sees.
concern for direction and motivations behind social and environmental transformations as result of industrial revolution
what is issue-attention cycle also known as?
public concern for most follow the pattern of what?
issue-attention cycle is through combined effects of?
-media's restless search for the new and novel
-realization that relieving the problem would entail significant cost
-maybe a sense that gov. must now be taking care of things
T/F: in the issue-attention cycle, public interest in most issues tends to wane over time?
what is the extent of environmental concern?
-natural conscience: not all there is to environmental concern and its expansion into a broad popular movement
-intensity of world support for environmental concerns dropped considerably, depending on how question was phrased
What are environmental concerns ups and downs
-dramatic upswing in 1960s
-environmental concern has perished over 30 yrs, more that passing fad
* widespread and long lasting, but variable in intensity over time, from person to person
what Is a common suggestion of environmentalism?
common suggestion that environmentalism is elite movement of liberal, white, and the comfortably well-off
-early global research found these social factors had little influence on level of environmental concern
who are actually the strongest opponents the environmental movement?
business leaders-higher incomes on the whole
What is the environmentalism of the poor?
-combines concern for environment with more visible concern for social justice
-focus on unequal distribution of environmental bads
-little support for assumption
what are the three main traditions that provide ideological rationale for environmental domination
Christianity and Technology
-technology helped separate people from nature
-Christian ethic is anthropocentric (God and saints as transcendent above nature)
-but underlying philosophies of the western world, not Christianity alone, are supportive of domination and transformation of environment
What is Weber's "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism"
-protestant ethic emphasized being one of the 'elect' by maximizing their worldly 'moral worth'
-modern capitalism first arose in dominantly protestant countries
-Emphasis on self over the wider community
◦Long been central dimension of the Western tradition
-Does not prepare us to recognize how interconnected we all are with our wider surroundings
◦Tend to ignore consequences of our actions for our wider surroundings, and
individualism on the body
-encourages us to see our body as sealed off from natural world
-bodily functions as vulgar, repulsive, dirty
Individualism; a body of interconnections and exchanges with the social and natural environment; its is a body of openings and protrusions that connect us with other bodies and with the world around us; the mouth, nose, anus, genitals and stomach.
Individualism; body of separation from society and nature; most of its orifices are hidden from view; those that ae not hidden are carefully controlled through rituals that de-emphasize their openness
Ecology of patriarchy
-Patriarchal ideas pervade our thinking about society and environment
-Common Western tendency to consider women as being closer to
nature than men
*Traditions suggest that nature is female and females are more natural
-Women associated with realm of reproduction and the domestic
-Men associated with production and the public sphere, realm of
-explores links between domination of women and domination of environment
*argues that domination of environment originates together with social domination of all kinds
T/F: in ecofeminism is it common for socially dominated groups to be linked with nature?
True; lower class groups viewed as primitive
in ecofeminism what is the importance of dualisms?
-culture vs. nature, reason vs. nature, male vs. female, mind vs. body, etc.
-in each dichotomy, first member of par dominate over second
-dividing the world into antagonistic pairs represent a legacy of a Western us-versus-them logic
What are the different opinions with environmentalism and Feminism?
-Environmental activists often associate nature with women
* idea is to promote valuation of both nature and therefore, women
-Ecofeminists argue this is problematic
* don't want to further stereotypes of women as 'caretakers' for everyone else
what is ecofeminism concerned about?
patriarchal system of social organization, enacted by both men and women, but results in domination
what is the controversy over ecofeminism?
-criticized for perpetuation dichotomy between men and women, negative stereotypes of women
-criticized from implying that "logic of domination" is mainly a feature of Western thought
what are some terms that are emerging to address the criticisms and recognize gray areas, interactiveness, and interdependence categories? what is wrong with them?
-categories not inherently wrong or bad, just need better ones than the hierarchically, socially unjust, and environmentally destructive ones of patriarchy
The social construction of nature: Framing
-Signifying work or meaning construction engaged in by movement adherents (e.g., leaders, activists, and rank-and-file participants) and other actors (e.g., adversaries, institutional
elites, media, social control agents, countermovements) relevant to the interests of
movements and the challenges they mount in pursuit of those interests
◦Social construction of a social phenomenon
The social construction of nature: Claimsmaking
- an attempt to persuasively define a situation in a particular way and to have that definition become widely accepted (normative) as a basis for ameliorative action. i.e., an attempt to construct and impose meaning
"ozone hole" vs. "ozone depletion"
-example of social selection in environmental understanding, leading to a particular representation for a particular narrative purpose
-more accurate to say depletion rather than hole because the problem Is not a hole
-another example: :climate change" vs. "global warming"
Moral separatism and moral holism
-unless we are part of nature, nature has no relevance for us
- and if we are part of nature, t is superfluous to ask people to follow it for, as creatures of nature, we must already be doing so
who is Ellsworth Huntington?
wrote Civilization and Climate (1915)
what was Huntington's book, "civilization and climate" about
-he wanted to identify the "relationship" between climate and the degree of civilization
-he sent a message to "about 50 geographers and other widely informed men in a dozen countered of America, Europe and Asia"
-he asked respondents to rate the level of civilization in that area
-major flaws in his analysis
-the danger with the social construction of nature is that we so often attempt to use it to legitimate social inequality
what is "risk society"?
- 21st Century seems culturally and politically saturated with language of
-Our relationship to risk and uncertainty has changed
◦From natural to technological
◦More and more exposure
-Becoming a 'risk society'
◦Ulrich Beck (quoted in Yates 2001:96): "'Risk society' means that we live in a world out of control. There is nothing certain but uncertainty."
◦Media saturated with news of BSE, GMOs, pesticides, hazardous waste, lead,
dioxin, smog, cancer, heart disease, aids, car accidents, plane crashes.....
-sense of what we should worry about, ad how much
-IDEAL side of worries and fears
-organizational, technological, economic and biophysical potential of circumstances for disrupting goals and intentions
-MATERIAL side of worries and desires
Risk and Risky both help with what?
both help constitute and reconstitute each other and raise important questions about knowledge, democracy and dialogue
What is rationale risk assessment?
-comparison of best knowledge about the rates and probabilities of hazards and selection of lest dangerous alternative
*version of rational choice theory
-Risks= calculable 'facts' we can measure, record, evaluate
* homogenized formula
-Argues that risks CAN and SHOULD be evaluated independent of political, social ad cultural contexts
-BUT people do not always act in their own interests or act rationally
-assumes risk and risky are the same
-based as much on norms and values as on calculation
-money is most common unit of analysis
* presumes all things can be compared if given monetary value
what is the social nature of risks?
-risk is embedded within social relations
* knowledge is influenced by relations of power and trust
* power relations influence both knowledge that come to your attention and knowledge that you out
* trust will influence what you make of that knowledge if you see at risk
-discussions of risk implies power and control
-central choice is knowledge
* rational knowledge is suppose to be everybody's knowledge- in theory
* if don't know something is a risk, harder to make a choice and say you made a voluntary choice
What are knowledge gaps?
emerge among experts and between experts and non-experts
-vertical knowledge gaps
-horizontal knowledge gaps
vertical knowledge gap
knowledge does not pass from "top" of society to the "bottom"
horizontal knowledge gaps
knowledge between scientists breaks down, do not have same information
how does acceptance of risks work?
risk and uncertainty-----> normalization of risks-------> acceptance of risks
what are the three foundations of ecological mobilization?
-concepts: ecological knowledge
-connections: community ties
-contestations: political strategy
*need all three for an effective environmental movement
what is it said about knowledge?
no person has all the knowledge, can pay attention to all the sources, and all the sources do not even agree
what is the behaviorist approach of knowledge?
if we change an individuals attitudes, their behaviors will soon follow
what is situational knowledge?
-need to understand social contexts by which, and in which, people find themselves motivated to take action
-knowledge and awareness is a social matter, not a mechanical matter
what is cultivation of knowledge
-what we take to be knowledge is a matter of one's identity and a matter of the social relations of trust that shape ones identity and come form ones identity
-interactive, on-going, cultivated within culture
-to cultivate knowledge is also to cultivate a sense of the ignorable
what is frame alignment?
process by which an individuals frames become congruent or complimentary with knowledge cultivation
what are the 4 parts of frame alignment?
what is conscientization?
-building of critical consciousness in dialogue with the world
-does not emphasize persuasion
-rather develops peoples critical capacities, welcomes differences and disagreements
who wrote "tragedy of the commons"? what does it entail?
-logic of the commons generates tragedy
-each person tries to maximize personal benefit by using common-pool resources (land, water, forage), at the expense of everyone else
-common-pool resources are ruined, all people loose
what is environmental sociology of contestation? (mobilizing ecological contestations)
how environmental social movements successfully confront resistance and, in the end, often broaden their solidarities
what is consensus-based approach? (
build relationships in which power is shared for mutual benefit
* idealist approach
what is conflict model of contestation? (mobilizing ecological contestations)
friction and powerful interests frequently stand in the way of any grassroots movement
* must embrace conflict
* materialist approach
what are the four factors to consider in a successful strategy of the political opportunity structure
-openness of decision makers to hearing concerns
-implementation power decision makers have to do something about those concerns
-structure of alliances that shape how decision makers will feel compelled to act
-stability of all of the above
what is governance?
-process by which social groups, create, institutionalize and enforce social norms
* public perception of social problems
* power dynamics
what are the key actors IN GOV
◦President and Congress
◦How do legislators know if an issue is salient?
◦Implement laws passed by congress
◦Are constrained by several factors
◦Federal courts have authority to review agency
decisions to be sure they are consistent with
◦Also consider challenges to policy by different
◦Policies implemented at a variety of levels
What are the key actors OUTSIDE GOV
◦Also fall into environmentalist and cornucopia
◦Use conventional tactics like lobbying legislators
and contributing money to a campaign
◦Scientists, economists, lawyers, policy analysts
used to garner evidence
◦Shaping the discourse
◦Focus on stories that are newsworthy
What about communities?
What are the 4 fixes when it comes to strategies for change?
* more efficient engines, emission control devices, biotechnology, etc.
* eating lower on the food chain, bike, carpool, turn down thermostats
* need incentives and punishments
* public edu and media campaigns
* speed limits, removal of lead from gasoline
what are the 3 types of strategies to implement policies?
* clean air standards, antipollution measures and recycling
* reduce consumption via behavioral changes and interventions in the middle of the process
* make production more benign, reduce waste (engineering or more energy friendly appliances
what are the benefit of coalition building?
-opportunity to combine or acquire resources
-increased political influence
-enhance social capital (especially local EJ coalitions)
-share info and learn tactics
-sense of permanence
what are the costs of coalition building?
-a loss of autonomy
-a need to alter strategies
-potential ideological conflicts and identity loss
-time consuming and labor intensive (especially for small coalitions)
What is participatory governance?
-governing the ecological society will entail more than the work of gov, it will require the work of citizens too
* local people live in their context, and have an intimate understanding of its dynamics, constraints and possibilities
* local knowledge yields a contextualized rationality rooted in place and environment
what is participatory development?
-get a dialogue going between local people and scientists, between local knowledge and expert knowledge
* local people don't always know best, but conversations based on respect and concern of each party for the other may become solidarities of interests and sentiments
* goal: to ensure that all voices are heard and are welcome, that communication is open and available to all, and that the agenda is always open to change
* by recognizing one's own contribution but also limitations, people can talk to each other and link together for change without universalizing their ideas onto someone else's experiences
Environmental Policy Making: Environmentalists beliefs
preservations of wild areas or prudent use of natural resources
Environmental Policy Making: Cornucopian beliefs
focus on economic growth and humans as superior
Environmental Policy Making: Bottoms Up Approach
-in many situations , citizen-based action to defend environment rights works
* not one local community in world, but many
* pluralism complicates coordination
* difficult to draw boundaries , decide who is relevant stake holder
* may not be inclusive of all in the community
* difficult to gather all necessary resources of time, money and people at grassroots level
* grassroots groups often lack relevant expertise, political influence/ power
Environmental policy making: Top Down approach
-Can offer the bottom many resources
* coordination, democracy, resources, expertise and influence
-may have additional financial resources, political influence
-can implement the changes that turn environmental virtue into virtual environmentalism
-top often finds it needs the bottom as much as the bottom needs it
* changes only from top often leads to foot-dragging on part of those at bottom
* top always at risk of "legitimation crisis"
types of policies
- Constituent vs. Regulatory
* particular group vs. large number of constituents
-Distributive vs. Redistributive
* "free gifts" vs. "taking from one group to give to another"
what are the different forms of local EJ coalitions?
-multi-stakeholder coalitions addressing one issue
-multi-issue and multi-organizational coalitions
what is the A-B split?
* disjunction between what people profess to value and believe and how they really act
-sometimes we adjust our behaviors to fit our beliefs
-other times we adjust our attitudes to fit our behaviors- usually unconsciously
-source of internal struggle and conflict
what is normal environmentalism?
-environmentalism you don't have o worry about because you just find yourself doing it anyway
* lies behind and beneath our daily lives
* making decisions to benefit the environment, because they were the cheapest and easiest decisions to make
-will only become popular if we change the structures of cheap and convenient by reorganizing the social organization of production and consumption
the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources
what is green capitalism?
-economy is the most important feature of our daily lives that needs reconstruction
-central role of positive externalities
greening capitalism: Degrowth
reject the "faith system" that economies must always grow, but not to abandon the notion of markets
greening capitalism: Plenitude
satisfaction with abundance rather than constant lust for more
central issues in environmentalism: sustainability
considers how we draw boundaries of concern between present and future generations
central issues in environmentalism: environmental justice
considers how we draw boundaries of concern between human groups
central issues in environmentalism: beauty of ecology
considers how we draw boundaries of concern between humans and the rest of creation
what is anthropocentric environmentalism?
-we consider own interests first in our interaction with environment, and that we need to consider the environments interests in order to gain our own
-solidarity of interests
what is ecocentric environmentalism?
-we consider environment as moral entity inn its own right, with its own beauty and that we see ourselves as a part of that moral entity/ "respect for nature"
-solidarity of sentiments
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