Terms in this set (55)
A high surface area to volume ratio in a cell favors...
Adequate exchange of materials between the cell and its surrounding environment.
The movement of water upward from the roots to the stems, and then to the leaves, is due to mainly what 2 properties of water?
Cohesion of water molecules through hydrogen bonds and adhesion of water molecules to xylem of plants.
The earth is full of different animals, plants, fungi, protists, and prokaryotes (bacteria). Each of these life forms lives in a specific environment found on earth and has a specific niche within that biome. The biomes are defined by certain abiotic factors. List abiotic factors that could define a biome:
Precipitation, Sunlight, Temperature
Darwin proposed his Theory of Natural Selection Nov. 24, 1859 in the book titled On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. In this book, he makes several references to species trying to survive long enough to reproduce and keep the species existent of Earth. List the specific parts of his theory that back this up:
-More offspring are produced than can possibly survive in a given environment.
-There is competition among species for limited resources.
-There exists variation among offspring.
Proteins can be produced by cells and then exported out of the cell to aid in cell communication. Some examples include hormones. Hormones are examples of ligands, communication molecules, between cells that can trigger a signal transduction response. List the structures and organelles that would play a role in protein synthesis of these hormone molecules:
Ribosomes, Rough ER & Golgi Apparatus
Which transport mechanism moves molecules against a concentration gradient?
What chromosomal abnormality is associated with part of a chromosome breaking away and attaching to a non-homologous chromosome?
Carbon is found in all macromolecules that compose a living organism on Earth. List the properties of Carbon:
-Carbon has 4 unpaired electrons in its outermost shell.
-Carbon atoms can form single, double or triple covalent bonds.
-Carbon atoms can act as "intersections" within macromolecules.
What part of the microscope would a student use to fine tune the image? Can you identify that part of the picture?
K - Fine Adjustment Knob
If an animal has scales and fins, what would it be classified as?
The hierarchy of life shows the differences, as well as the similarities, between the various forms of "life" on Earth. List the hierarchy from cells to biosphere:
Cells Organ Systems
Organs Populations Biomes
List ways we could classify fungi:
Eukaryotic Has cell wall (chitin)
The reaction of 2 monomers becoming a resulting polymer, as seen in the image below, is classified as what type of chemical reaction?
If most green plants are exposed to only green colors of light, what would happen in terms of gas exchange?
CO2 in the air around the plant would increase.
What is the metabolic pathway through which cells generate and obtain energy for all cellular processes in the form of ATP?
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. Which number on the diagram below indicates the process of Mitosis occurring?
Brown eye color (B) is dominant to blue eye color (b). A heterozygous brown-eyed father and a blue-eyed mother have children. What would be the expected phenotype percentages of the children?
All ecosystems must abide by the Law of Conservation of Matter and also the Second Law of Thermodynamics. What are themes in science that abide by these 2 laws?
All energy for the planet starts as sunlight.
The matter is recycled within ecosystems.
Energy flows through ecosystems in a 1-way path ending with heat.
The cell membrane is described as a fluid mosaic model of molecules. All the components of the membrane move laterally providing the visual of an ever-changing puzzle. The molecules serve as a barrier between the external environment and the life giving internal environment. In the diagram below, which number(s) represent structures that could act as enzymes, transport molecules, attachment sites for the ECM or cytoskeleton?
C & D (Proteins)
Animal cells do not have protective cell walls, like plant cells, as they need to be able to move or be flexible. They do have protective structures that help to protect them from environmental stresses. What 2 main protective structures do animal cell have? Where are they found?
Extra Cellular Matrix: protects the outer membrane surface.
Cytoskeleton: provides internal support & structure to the cell.
Glycolysis is an ancient process that evolved in cells billions of years ago. As all organisms on the planet can perform Glycolysis to generate small amounts of energy in the form of ATP molecules, this supports the scientific belief that common ancestry exists among all life forms. What fact supports this scientific fact?
All organism's cells posses cytoplasm and the process of Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm.
What molecule does the image below depict?
Scientists all around the world are trying to create transgenic organisms for multiple purposes, some good and some harmful. List some good purposes for creating transgenic organisms:
Bioremediation: cleaning up of a polluted environment using living organisms.
The production of cattle possessing more meat & less fat.
The production of new strains of corn that can grow in dry environments such as deserts.
Individuals do not evolve new traits over time. Populations evolve new traits over time by changes created within the DNA nucleotide sequence of gametes due to environmental pressures being forced upon the organisms living in that environment. What situation would result in the lowest rate of DNA change within a population?
Reproduction of organisms by asexual means.
What molecule does the image below depict?
Homologous structures can be used to tell a wide variety of information. What statement would be supported by the differences in the arrangement of bones in the forelimbs of the human, cat, whale, and bat seen below?
They possess adaptations needed
for their specific environment.
A biome that is characterized by warm year-round temperatures and low annual rainfall:
What terms are associated with the term GAMETE?
We can use Prokaryotes to help clean up and breakdown polluted environments, such as the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Bacteria had been sprayed on oil slicks to attempt to "eat" all the oil. What is this attempt called?
Arrange these adaptations in the order that they evolved from earliest to latest, for plants to live on and colonize most land surfaces.
3-Seeds, 1-Apical meristems, 2-Vascular tissues, 4-Flowers
The light-dependent reactions, carried out by the photosystems, occur at which location?
Thylakoid Membranes #4
The CO2 is fixed into sugar molecules known as glucose in which location?
Organelles play various roles within Eukaryotic cells, such as helping with protein production or structural integrity. Which organelle contains DNA and is responsible for producing ATP when Oxygen is present in the cell?
A carbon atom shares electrons with 2 oxygen atoms to form carbon dioxide. What is this type of bonding called?
ATP is the energy-containing molecule most often used by cells, of living organisms, to power cellular activities. When is energy released from ATP molecules?
A phosphate group is removed by hydrolysis from an ATP molecule.
Autotrophic organisms such as plants, cyanobacteria, and many single celled eukaryotic organisms all perform the process of photosynthesis to help keep them alive. What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
Convert solar energy into chemical energy for storage.
If there was a change in the DNA sequence that resulted in an amino acid being replaced by a different amino acid in the primary sequence of a functioning protein thus making the protein less effective in its functioning, this would be classified as what type of mutation for genes?
Missense Point Mutation
One of the most important aquatic biomes is an area where water sits in areas on land for long periods of time, hence the term wetlands. These wetlands serve as important breeding grounds and feeding areas for numerous species of birds as they migrate north in the summer and south in the winter. 2 types of wetlands exist; swamps and marshes. What is the difference between the 2?
Marshes: reed grasses
A farmer must plow up the old soil and allow it to aerate (breath) before planting. What type of succession is this?
Secondary Succession -
soil already existed
Correctly list the hierarchy of taxonomy from most inclusive to least inclusive:
List the 3 parts of the cell theory:
The cell is the basic functional unit of life.
All cells come from pre-existing cells.
All living organisms are made of cells.
Where do most of the CO2 used by plants during photosynthesis come from?
The atmosphere surrounding the leaves of the plant.
What are the 3 ways mRNA strands are modified before they can leave the nucleus and go to the ribosome for protein synthesis?
Poly A Tail
Introns cut out and Exons spliced together
Which chromosomal abnormality is associated with part of a chromosome breaking away and then reattaching to the same chromosome, but in the reverse orientation?
Correctly list the hierarchy of genetics from largest to smallest in terms of molecules:
Which bacteria are responsible for the primary conversion of NH3 to absorbable, by plant roots, NH4?
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria
List 3 ways of creating genetic variation in the process of sexual reproduction:
If the molecule shown below is a DNA based nucleotide, what would the structure labeled 1 be?
The image depicts 3 major events, list them:
A diploid cell becoming haploid cells
A man with blood type A, whose mother was blood type O marries a woman that has blood type AB. What are the possible blood types of their future children?
A, B & AB
Which species, according to the food web, could be a Tertiary consumer?
What is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane called?
If an organism is multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, and can move from place to place, most likely it is classified as...
In which biome would you most likely find the following animals...
Squirrel, deer, rabbit, bluebird, and mouse
Temperate Deciduous Forest
What other terms are associated with bacteria?