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315 Final Exam
Terms in this set (136)
What is the equilibrium potential for K+?
Hypothetically, increasing extracellular K+ would cause ______of the cell.
The equilibrium for Na+ occurs around ______mV,while the equilibrium for K+ occurs around _____mV
At what phase of the action potential, does potassium efflux occur?
If injected current depolarizes the membrane beyond threshold, _______will be generated.
________refers to the speed of propagation of action potentials.
Continuous conduction of action potential occurs along _________axons.
Rapid saltatory conduction occurs along ________axons
Who was responsible for determining that the vagus nerve uses a chemical neurotransmitter to communicate to cells of the heart and cause it to slow down?
________was the first neurotransmitter to be discovered
Depolarization of the presynaptic terminal leads to influx of ______
EPSPs and IPSPs spread passively over the _______and ______to the axon hillock.
_______of transmitter via ________slows synaptic action and recycles transmitters for subsequent transmission
_________break down excess transmitter in the extracellular space
_________receptors are super fast and really efficient, while _______receptors are much slower but a lot longer lasting
What are the two receptor types?
Are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ionotropic or metabotropic?
What type of receptors can be found on muscles?
nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Curare blocks which receptors?
nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Are nicotinic ACh receptors excitatory or inhibitory?
Are muscarinic ACh receptors excitatory or inhibitory?
What are the two types of acetylcholine receptors?
Muscarinic Ach receptors can be blocked by _____or ______
GABA and glutamate are _______neurotransmitters
Acetycholine, DA, 5-HT, and norepinephrine are ______neurotransmitters
What type of neurotransmitter are oxytocin and vasopressin?
What are two examples of gas neurotransmitters?
Cholinergic neurons are produced in what area of the brain?
What are the two dopaminergic pathways in the brain?
the mesolimbocortical pathway projects from the ________to the ______and _______
Where in the brain is norepinephrine produced?
All amine neurotransmitter pathways project to the cerebellum except for:
Midbrain raphe nuclei go to the ___________, while brainstem raphe nuclei go to the _________.
A neurotransmitter is a ___________ligand, whereas drugs are considered a __________ligand
________receptors are crucial for muscle contraction
What neurotransmitter is involved in complex behaviors, including motor function, reward, and higher cognition?
What neurotransmitter has multiple effects in visceral organs and important in the sympathetic nervous system?
in the brain, what neurotransmitter provides an alerting and arousing function?
All serotonin receptor subtypes are _____________except for _______
What neurotransmitter is involved in mood, sleep and higher cognition?
What are the two subtypes of GABA receptors?
GABAa receptors are ____________, while GABAb receptors are_________.
_____is the most abundant of all neurotransmitter
What GABA receptor subtypes are ionotropic?
What are the receptor subtypes for opiates?
________refers to the degree of chemical attraction between a ligand and a receptor
_________(or_______) is the ability of a bound ligand to activate the receptor
In order for a drug with _______affinity to bind half the receptors at any given time, a higher concentration of the drug is needed. In order for a drug with _____affinity to bind half of the receptors at any given time, a lower concentration of the drug will be sufficient.
__________shows the relationship between drug doses and the effects
When the ED and LD are farther apart, the drug is said to have a:
wide therapeutic index
______tolerance occurs when organ systems become more effective at eliminating the drug
_____tolerance occurs when the target tissue shows altered sensitivity to the drug by changing the number of receptors
Neurons down-regulate available receptors to an _______drug, and up-regulate in response to an _______drug.
Botox blocks _______receptors.
Typical antipsychotics block __________ receptors, while atypical antipsychotics block _________and ________receptors
dopamine D2 receptors
________________drugs block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine and are used to treat depression.
Anxiolytics work primarily via __________receptors to relieve anxiety.
Alcohol's effects have two phases: first, a _______phase, then a _________phase.
In adults, alcohol abuse affects the ___________lobes. Bingeing on alcohol reduces the rate of ____________.
Morphine and heroin are examples of __________
Hallucinogens stimulate _____________receptors, particularly in the ____________cortex
Ketamine and PCP are examples of _____________drugs that block ____________receptors
__________has been proposed as a chemical model for schizophrenia
Naloxone is a __________antagonist
Cannabinoid receptors can be found where in the brain?
Presynaptic adenosine receptors are blocked by___________________
__________is a stimulant that acts by blocking reuptake of monoamine transmitters and is highly addictive.
LSD activates _______________receptors in the visual cortex
_____________stimulates visual cortical serotonin levels but also changes levels of dopamine and prolactin
Many addictive drugs may cause the release of ________in the _____________.
____________is associated with 'wanting' (motivation seeking), while _________is associated with 'liking' (pleasure).
An example of drugs for detoxication is____________
Examples of agonists or partial agonist analogs of the addictive drug, which activate the same pathway, used to treat drug abuse are:
_________is an example of a medication that alters drug metabolism by producing unpleasant side effects of drinking
Botox blocks what type of receptors?
nicotinic (ACh) receptors
Typical antipsychotics mainly act on _____________receptors, while atypical antipsychotics mainly act on _________receptors.
Opium contains ___________, an effective analgesic.
Cocaine acts by blocking the reputed of _____________
_____________and ____________have a two-step mode of action on monoamines
_______________stimulates 5-HT2A receptors in the visual cortex, but also changes levels of dopamine and prolactin
____and______are both NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists
_______has been proposed as a chemical model for schizophrenia.
Many addictive drugs cause dopamine release in the ________________
Dopamine facilitates the feeling of ________, while opioids facilitate feelings of ___________.
What skin receptor detects vibration and pressure and has a large receptive field?
What skin receptor is a fast-adapting tactile receptor that mediates most of our ability to perceive form?
__________indicates that the brain recognizes distinct senses because action potentials travel along separate nerve tracts
________receptors are slow-adapting and adapt slowly or not at all, while ______receptors are fast adapting and rapidly decrease firing to a constant stimulus.
What type of neurons allow different sensory systems to interact?
What areas in the brain process a mixture of inputs from different modalities?
_____fibers have large axon diameters, myelinated and associated with the initial sharp pain. _____fibers have small axon diameters, unmyelinated and associated with long-dull pain
C-fibers carry information from ______and ______receptors.
A-delta fibers carry information from _______receptors
_________free nerve endings detect moderate temperatures and capsaicin, while ______free nerve endings detect high temperatures.
In the spinal cord, pain fibers release _____and ________.
When_________is released in the spinal cord, it can boost pain signal
Injured cells release _____and ______that may promote swelling and inflammation
After pain information reaches the primary somatosensory system, it then goes to ________, which integrates pain information.
Touch, vibration, two-point discrimination and proprioception information travels via __________pathway, while pain, temperature and some touch information travels via __________pathway.
Pain is regulated through ___________regulation, _______regulation, and ___________.
in the dorsal horn, non-nociceptive mechanoreceptors ______the interneuron and _______the projection neuron, whereas nociceptive signals carried by the c-fiber _____the interneuron and ______the projection neuron.
In the gate-theory of pain, when touch information and pain information are both activated, pain __________
In the descending pain pathway, PAG first projects to __________and then to ____________
Increase in social distress causes increase activation of _______________.
anterior cingulate cortex
What are two important brain regions included in the extrapyramidal system?
_______may be important for initiation of movement sequences, especially when preplanned, while _______is activated when motor sequences are guided by external events
Mirror neurons can be found in the ___________cortex, in the subregion_____
What type of neurons may be important for empathy because they fire when both when you are doing the movement, and when you observe someone else doing that same movement?
______occurs due to progressive destruction of the caudate nucleus and putamen, resulting in excessive, involuntary movement.
What are the two kinds of efferent fibers found in the muscle?
_______motorneurons alter tension within the spindle and control receptor sensitivity, where ______motoneurons go to the extrafusal muscle fibers to contract the muscles
What two signals from the cochlea inform the brain about pitch?
______coding is more effective for low frequency sounds, whereas _____coding is more effective for high frequency sounds.
The external ear includes the ____and ______
What ossicle directly bangs against the oval window?
When the stapes pushes the fluid in the inner ear, fluid displacement occurs at the ___________
What are the 3 ossicles?
What are the two muscles connected to the ossicles in the middle ear?
tensor tympani muscle
What are the three main canals of the cochlea?
In what canal of the cochlea, can the organ of corti be found?
The basilar membrane and tectorial membrane can be found in the:
organ of corti
A high frequency sound would cause the _____of the cochlear to oscillate, whereas a low frequency sound would cause the _____of the cochlear to oscillate.
Stereo cilia are connected to one another via_________.
Do hair cells produce action potentials? yes or no?
Auditory pathways are arranged in a map of _____to____frequency
What are the 3 types of hearing loss?
______deafness can be caused by earwax or otitis external (ear infection), as they present sounds from reaching the cochlea
_______deafness results when hair cells fail to respond to movement of the basilar membrane. Damage to hair cells can result in _______, a persistent ringing in the ears.
_____deafness is caused by damage to auditory brain areas. ______deafness results in the inability to recognize spoken words. ______deafness results in the difficulty in recognizing all complex sounds or speech
What are the two kinds of binaural cues we use to locate a sound source?
Latency differences include _____disparity and ______disparity
Taste cells come in contact with tastants at_____________.
When Na+ ions are transported across taste cell membranes-- you are likely to have eaten something________
Sour tastes cause the release of _______ions through ______channels.
G-coupled taste receptors detect which tastants?
Which 3 cranial nerves are involved in gustatory?
Taste information synapses in the _________region of the thalamus and then goes to the primary gustatory cortex, which is located in__________
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