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92 terms

CHAPTER 18

STUDY
PLAY
curl reformation
The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is
chemical and physical changes
chemical and procedures involve changing the hair structure using:
cuticle
The exterior hair structure layer that protects the hair from damage is the
cortex
The middle layer of the hair that provides strength and elasticity
disulfide bonds
Hair bonds that cannot be broken by heat or water; can only be broken by chemicals
4.5 and 5.5
The natural pH of hair is between:
client consultation
One of the most important parts of a successful texture service is the:
metallic salts
Permanent waves cannot be preformed if the hair is coated with:
sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together
Disulfide bonds are chemical - based side bonds that are formed when
potential of hydrogen
The measurement used to determine the hydrogen ions in a solution is :
allow penetration to the cortex layer
Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to :
keratin proteins
Long, coiled polypeptide chains that are part of the hairs structure are :
condition of the hair
The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture,color, and :
abrasions or signs of the scalp disease
During the hair and scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for:
coarse - textured hair
Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation
density
The measurement of the number of hairs per square inch on the head is
elasticity
An indication of the strength of the side bonds is :
chemical change process
The second process os a permanent wave is the :
size of the rod
In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the :
straight rod
The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a :
double -flat wrap
A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand and one over is the :
base section
Rods are placed onto subsections of a panel; the hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is placed on each base section
base placement also known as base control
The position of a permanent rod in relation to its base section; determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped
half off base placement
Base control technique of wrapping hair at a 90 degree angle or straight out from the center
croquignole method
The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method and:
piggyback wrap
A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a (n)
oxygen
A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of:
thioglycolic acid
A common, colorless liquid with a strong unpleasant odor used in chemical texture services; provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in permanent waving solution.
ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)
The main active ingredient reducing agent in alkaline permanents
9.0 and 96
Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between :
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions
heat
An exothermic chemical reaction produces:
The term pH literally means
Potential of hydrogen
Chemical texturizers raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to
soften and swell the hair shaft
Long coral polypeptides chain that make _______
97% structure of hair
Chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds are called
polypeptides
chemical base sidebonds that are formed when two sulfa type chains are joined together are
disulfide bonds
Building blocks of proteins; made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen
amino acids
Current perm wrap service only alters
sidebonds
Some home haircoloring products contain ________ that are not compatible with permanent waving
Metallic salt
Diameter of a single hair strand
Texture
Produce a tighter curl in the center, and looser curl on either side of the strand; smaller diameter in the center that increases to larger diameter on the ends
Concave rods
Concave rods
Are the most common type of perm rod
One end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
Bookend wrap
Uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped
single flat wrap
The hair is wrapped 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section
On base placement
There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod
croquignole and spiral
Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called
reduction
An _____________ chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surrounding
endothermic
Endothermic waves
are activated by an outside heat source (hood type hair dryer)
Uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent
THIO-free waves
Permanents based on sulfites are very weak and do not provide a
firm curl
The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is the
deactivation, or (neutralization) harding hair to new form
Neutralization of any waving lotion that remains in the hair after processing and rinsing chemical reaction involved is called
oxidation
curvature perm wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
Using zigzag partings to divide base areas
weave technique
The neutralizer used with thio relaxers is an
oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide
What is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
hydroxide ion
All hydroxide relaxers are very strong ___________
Alkalis
hydroxide relaxers most have a pH over
13 and can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter
Thio relaxer is needed to swell the hair but it is the ____that breaks the disulfide bonds
thio
Acid balanced waves
Not true acid waves, they have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 and use glyceryl monthioglycolate (GNTG) as the primary reducing agent; Produces at room temperature; heat is not required; faster processing time; produces firmer curls than true acid waves.
Alkaline waves
Cold waves; pH balance between 9.0 and 9.6; use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature
Ammonia-free waves
low oder; alkanolamines used instead of ammonia
base direction
Angle teh rod is positioned on the head (vertically, horizontal or diagonally) directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
base / protective cream
oily cream used to protect
basic perm wrap
all the rods within the panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-size bases; all base sections are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm rod.
bricklay perm wrap
base sections are offset from each other row by row
chemical texture services
hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
croquignole perm
perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod, in overlapping concentric layers
exothermic waves
creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
hydrogen bond
A weak physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. (wet setting or thermal styling)
hydroxide neutralization
the neutralization of hydroxide relaxers is an acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by the hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair andd scalp. Hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfied bonds.
hydroxide relaxers
very strong alkalis with a pH over 13. The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
lanthionization
process by which hydrogen relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair
loop or circle rod
tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter alond the entire length of the rod
low pH waves
perms that work at a low pH and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium
medulla
innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith or core of the hair
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen
normalizing lotions
conditioners that restore the hair's natural pH after a hyroxide relaxer prior to shampooing
off base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section
on base placement
What will result in a subsection of hair being wrapped at an angle 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section?
peptide bonds or end bonds
chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains
polypeptide chains
long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
salt bonds
weak physical side bonds are easily broken by changes in pH; permanent waving and re-form when the pH returns to normal
side bonds
disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together. Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair.
soft curl permanent
combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger or looser
straight rods
perm rods that are equal in circumference along their entire length or curling area
thio neutralization
stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebilds the hair in its new curly form
thio relaxers
use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used inpermanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)
thio free waves
are perms that use cysteamine or mercaptamine instead of ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent
true acid waves
perms that have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to speed the processing, process more slowly than alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl