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curl reformation

The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is

chemical and physical changes

chemical and procedures involve changing the hair structure using:


The exterior hair structure layer that protects the hair from damage is the


The middle layer of the hair that provides strength and elasticity

disulfide bonds

Hair bonds that cannot be broken by heat or water; can only be broken by chemicals

4.5 and 5.5

The natural pH of hair is between:

client consultation

One of the most important parts of a successful texture service is the:

metallic salts

Permanent waves cannot be preformed if the hair is coated with:

sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together

Disulfide bonds are chemical - based side bonds that are formed when

potential of hydrogen

The measurement used to determine the hydrogen ions in a solution is :

allow penetration to the cortex layer

Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to :

keratin proteins

Long, coiled polypeptide chains that are part of the hairs structure are :

condition of the hair

The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture,color, and :

abrasions or signs of the scalp disease

During the hair and scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for:

coarse - textured hair

Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation


The measurement of the number of hairs per square inch on the head is


An indication of the strength of the side bonds is :

chemical change process

The second process os a permanent wave is the :

size of the rod

In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the :

straight rod

The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a :

double -flat wrap

A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand and one over is the :

base section

Rods are placed onto subsections of a panel; the hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is placed on each base section

base placement also known as base control

The position of a permanent rod in relation to its base section; determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped

half off base placement

Base control technique of wrapping hair at a 90 degree angle or straight out from the center

croquignole method

The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method and:

piggyback wrap

A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a (n)


A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of:

thioglycolic acid

A common, colorless liquid with a strong unpleasant odor used in chemical texture services; provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in permanent waving solution.

ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)

The main active ingredient reducing agent in alkaline permanents

9.0 and 96

Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between :

glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)

main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions


An exothermic chemical reaction produces:

The term pH literally means

Potential of hydrogen

Chemical texturizers raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to

soften and swell the hair shaft

Long coral polypeptides chain that make _______

97% structure of hair

Chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds are called


chemical base sidebonds that are formed when two sulfa type chains are joined together are

disulfide bonds

Building blocks of proteins; made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen

amino acids

Current perm wrap service only alters


Some home haircoloring products contain ________ that are not compatible with permanent waving

Metallic salt

Diameter of a single hair strand


Produce a tighter curl in the center, and looser curl on either side of the strand; smaller diameter in the center that increases to larger diameter on the ends

Concave rods

Concave rods

Are the most common type of perm rod

One end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.

Bookend wrap

Uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped

single flat wrap

The hair is wrapped 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section

On base placement

There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod

croquignole and spiral

Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called


An _____________ chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surrounding


Endothermic waves

are activated by an outside heat source (hood type hair dryer)

Uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent

THIO-free waves

Permanents based on sulfites are very weak and do not provide a

firm curl

The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is the

deactivation, or (neutralization) harding hair to new form

Neutralization of any waving lotion that remains in the hair after processing and rinsing chemical reaction involved is called


curvature perm wrap

Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

Using zigzag partings to divide base areas

weave technique

The neutralizer used with thio relaxers is an

oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide

What is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers

hydroxide ion

All hydroxide relaxers are very strong ___________


hydroxide relaxers most have a pH over

13 and can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter

Thio relaxer is needed to swell the hair but it is the ____that breaks the disulfide bonds


Acid balanced waves

Not true acid waves, they have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 and use glyceryl monthioglycolate (GNTG) as the primary reducing agent; Produces at room temperature; heat is not required; faster processing time; produces firmer curls than true acid waves.

Alkaline waves

Cold waves; pH balance between 9.0 and 9.6; use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature

Ammonia-free waves

low oder; alkanolamines used instead of ammonia

base direction

Angle teh rod is positioned on the head (vertically, horizontal or diagonally) directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped

base / protective cream

oily cream used to protect

basic perm wrap

all the rods within the panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-size bases; all base sections are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm rod.

bricklay perm wrap

base sections are offset from each other row by row

chemical texture services

hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.

croquignole perm

perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod, in overlapping concentric layers

exothermic waves

creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing

hydrogen bond

A weak physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. (wet setting or thermal styling)

hydroxide neutralization

the neutralization of hydroxide relaxers is an acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by the hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair andd scalp. Hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfied bonds.

hydroxide relaxers

very strong alkalis with a pH over 13. The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers


process by which hydrogen relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair

loop or circle rod

tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter alond the entire length of the rod

low pH waves

perms that work at a low pH and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium


innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith or core of the hair

metal hydroxide relaxers

ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen

normalizing lotions

conditioners that restore the hair's natural pH after a hyroxide relaxer prior to shampooing

off base placement

base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section

on base placement

What will result in a subsection of hair being wrapped at an angle 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section?

peptide bonds or end bonds

chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains

polypeptide chains

long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

salt bonds

weak physical side bonds are easily broken by changes in pH; permanent waving and re-form when the pH returns to normal

side bonds

disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together. Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair.

soft curl permanent

combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger or looser

straight rods

perm rods that are equal in circumference along their entire length or curling area

thio neutralization

stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebilds the hair in its new curly form

thio relaxers

use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used inpermanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)

thio free waves

are perms that use cysteamine or mercaptamine instead of ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent

true acid waves

perms that have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to speed the processing, process more slowly than alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl

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