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The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is
sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together
Disulfide bonds are chemical - based side bonds that are formed when
allow penetration to the cortex layer
Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to :
condition of the hair
The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture,color, and :
abrasions or signs of the scalp disease
During the hair and scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for:
coarse - textured hair
Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation
The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a :
double -flat wrap
A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand and one over is the :
Rods are placed onto subsections of a panel; the hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is placed on each base section
base placement also known as base control
The position of a permanent rod in relation to its base section; determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped
half off base placement
Base control technique of wrapping hair at a 90 degree angle or straight out from the center
The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method and:
A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a (n)
A common, colorless liquid with a strong unpleasant odor used in chemical texture services; provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in permanent waving solution.
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions
Chemical texturizers raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to
soften and swell the hair shaft
chemical base sidebonds that are formed when two sulfa type chains are joined together are
Some home haircoloring products contain ________ that are not compatible with permanent waving
Produce a tighter curl in the center, and looser curl on either side of the strand; smaller diameter in the center that increases to larger diameter on the ends
Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called
The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is the
deactivation, or (neutralization) harding hair to new form
Neutralization of any waving lotion that remains in the hair after processing and rinsing chemical reaction involved is called
curvature perm wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
Acid balanced waves
Not true acid waves, they have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 and use glyceryl monthioglycolate (GNTG) as the primary reducing agent; Produces at room temperature; heat is not required; faster processing time; produces firmer curls than true acid waves.
Cold waves; pH balance between 9.0 and 9.6; use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature
Angle teh rod is positioned on the head (vertically, horizontal or diagonally) directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
basic perm wrap
all the rods within the panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-size bases; all base sections are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm rod.
chemical texture services
hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod, in overlapping concentric layers
creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
A weak physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat. (wet setting or thermal styling)
the neutralization of hydroxide relaxers is an acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by the hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair andd scalp. Hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfied bonds.
very strong alkalis with a pH over 13. The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
process by which hydrogen relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair
loop or circle rod
tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter alond the entire length of the rod
low pH waves
perms that work at a low pH and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen
conditioners that restore the hair's natural pH after a hyroxide relaxer prior to shampooing
off base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section
on base placement
What will result in a subsection of hair being wrapped at an angle 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section?
weak physical side bonds are easily broken by changes in pH; permanent waving and re-form when the pH returns to normal
disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together. Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair.
soft curl permanent
combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger or looser
stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebilds the hair in its new curly form
use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used inpermanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10)
thio free waves
are perms that use cysteamine or mercaptamine instead of ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent
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