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Apologetics Unit 3
Terms in this set (40)
What three things have been unique to Christianity?
1)Scriptures- Bible is the inerrant word of God
2)Jesus- He is the Messiah
What do people argue about concerning the NT?
Whether the NT is divinely inspired or the work of man alone
What are the three test applications to apply to historical texts?
2)Internal Evidence Test
3)External Evidence Test
Seeks to determine using all manuscripts (MSS) available how accurate they may be as a representation of the original auto graphs
What are manuscripts?
Internal Evidence Test
Do the documents claim to be actual history (literary form) and are there any contradictions that are contained within it?
External Evidence Test
Are there materials external (archaeology) to the document that confirm or contradict the reliability of the document?
Branch of study which focuses on the logical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of what historians do
Bibliographical Test- NT
-Smallest time gap
-Largest number of copies
-Over 24,000 total MSS in more than 24 languages
What are the three sources for the bibliographical test?
Books we use to read scriptures at Mass
-Written in thematic order
-32000 quotes- reproduce all but 11 lines of NT writings
What are most of the errors in historical texts?
In spelling, grammar, punctuation
-These errors do not prevent our understanding of scripture or affect Christian teachings
Scholars accept texts that have huge time gaps between the original and manuscripts with a low number of copies, therefore
it is clear that the NT Is a reliable sources
Conclusion of the bibliographical text
We can be assured that what we read is an accurate reflection of what the scriptural authors wrote
Conclusion of the internal evidence test
Most difficulties are generally problems of interpretation that usually occurs from eyewitness accounts, which do not affect the meaning or substance of the scriptures
Conclusion of the external evidence test
Extra-biblical sources from non-Christians confirm that general outline of the life of Jesus presented in the Gospels
Greek, Roman, Jewish, and Samaritan sources form the first century confirm the following about the historical Jesus
1)Jesus was a Rabbi from Nazareth.
2)Jesus lived a wise and virtuous life.
3)Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate during the reign of Tiberius Caesar at Passover time, being considered the Jewish King.
4)Jesus was believed by His disciples to have been raised from the dead three days after his death.
5)Jesus' enemies acknowledged that he performed unusual feats they called "sorcery" (miracles).
6)Jesus' small band of disciples multiplied rapidly, spreading even as far as Rome (from Palestine).
7)Jesus' disciples denied polytheism, lived moral lives, and worshiped Christ as divine.
Summary of the three tests
1)Bibliographical test: no other ancient text has as much attestation to its authenticity and accuracy
2)Internal evidence test: no internal inconsistencies exist that would alter any belief or doctrine of the faith
3)External evidence test: various non-Christian writers and archaeology affirms the accuracy of the outline of Jesus' life as portrayed in the Gospels
Audience is now someone who believes in God, not atheists
Manuscripts = "hand-written" copies
Is Jesus Lord, a liar, or a lunatic?
Aut Deus, out homo malus
Either God or a bad man.
Aut Deus, out homo malus- no one wants to offend anyone.
-Say Jesus is God = offend atheist
-Say Jesus is a bad man = offend Christians
-Say Jesus is a good man = offends logic
If Jesus isn't God...
He was absolutely deserving of his punishment.
The Divinity of Christ
-No other religion claims their founder is God
-Some things we believe because Christ is God
Possibilities of who Christ is
1)Jesus claimed divinity
-He meant it literally
It is true = Lord
It is false
• He knew it was false = Liar
• He did not know it was false = Lunatic
-He meant it non-literally; ie: mystically = Guru Theory
2)Jesus did not claim divinity = Myth
Mystical and spiritual leaders in East religions
-ie: Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism
-Everything is God
How is this argument set up?
Indirect proof- show other 4 choices are irrational
Refuting Quintilemma: Liar
-Jesus had no motive to tell his lie
-Because he lied, he was put to death and tortured. No one would lie to get punished.
-Jesus got nothing out of lying
-Jesus was about preaching truth and goodness, so it doesn't make sense that he would lie about his identity
Some people argue that Jesus got followers and fame from his lie.
Refuting: If Jesus was just a man, he wouldn't have known that he would've stayed famous for so long. Jesus died, so he didn't get any rewards for being famous. He could have remained silent about his trial, but he says "I am who am."- blasphemous
Of all religions at that time, Jews were the least likely to believe, but Jesus preached to them.
Pagans had no problem seeing God as a human being, but Jews did because God is sacred, far, etc.
Why do we view God as good?
First religion to have this view of God
Refuting Quintilemma: Lunatic
-Usually doesn't take long to figure out if someone is crazy if you're talking to them
-No one ever wrote down that he was crazy- no historical record; people against him just said that he was wrong
-Jesus was the opposite of the Divinity Complex because he was the opposite of this (he gave interesting stories, related to others, etc.)
Believing you're God: these people are egotistic, narcissistic, inflexible, dull, predictable, unable to relate and understand other people; however, Jesus was the opposite of this
Feeling uncomfortable next to a lunatic and Jesus
-You feel uncomfortable next to a lunatic because you see the world clearer than he/she does
-You feel uncomfortable next to Jesus because he sees the world so much more clear and beautiful than we do, and we wish we could see the world like this
Refuting Quintilemma: Guru Theory
-This theory meant that Jesus preached about the pantheistic god
-Jesus was born a Jew, and he would have had to realize Judaism was wrong and then preached we were all god
-Began believing in Pantheism- Jesus would have been the worst Pantheist of all time because none of his followers converted to Pantheism and continued to be Jews
-Disciples would have misunderstood all of Jesus' teachings
Judaism vs. Pantheism
-External: rituals, formal prayers
-Believed in Heaven and Hell
-We are all god
-Eventually everyone will get to Heaven
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