psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

personality
An individual's characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Maslow's pyramid/ hierarchy
the big 5 personality factors
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Motivation
is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal. It is what either starts or stops behavior.
Extrinsic motivation
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person. Example: Going to work for money.
Intrinsic motivation
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner. Example: Creating a web site for fun.
Primary Motives
are based on biological needs that must be met for survival. They are innate like hunger, thirst , pain avoidance, needs for air, sleep, elimination of wastes, and regulation of body temperature.
Stimulus Motives
express our needs for stimulation and information. For example, activity, curiosity, exploration, throwing parties, surf the net, reading, hanging out with friends, emailing each other.
Secondary Motives
based on learned needs, drives, and goals. Helps explain many human activities like making music, creating a web page, trying to win a skateboarding contest or American Idol.
Sensation seeking
is a trait of people who prefer high levels of stimulation. Whether you are high or low in sensation seeking is probably based on how your body responds to new, unusual, or intense stimulation.
Emotions
is a state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, posture and subjective feelings.
James-Lange Theory of Emotions
Emotions arise from our awareness of specific bodily responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Example: we observe our heart racing after being threatened and then we feel afraid
Cannon-Bard Theory
Emotion arousing stimuli trigger our bodily responses and simultaneous subjective experience

Example-our heart races at the same time we feel threatened
Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
Our experience of emotion depends on 2 factors:

General Arousal
Conscious Cognitive Label

Example: we may interpret our arousal as fear or excitement, depending on the context (mugging vs. haunted house)
Zajonc-LeDoux Theory of Emotion
Some embodied responses happen instantly, without conscious appraisal

Example: We automatically feel startled by a sound in the forest before labeling it as a threat
Lazarus Theory of Emotion
Cognitive appraisal- is it dangerous or not?- sometimes without our awareness defines emotion.

Example: The sound is "just the wind"
8 Primary emotions
Fear
Surprise
Sadness
Disgust
Anger
Anticipation
Happy
Trust
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
ByStander Effect
individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when other people are present.
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members.
stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
Scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
conformity
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.