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actual consent

oral or written permission from a mentally competent adult to give first aid

implied consent

assuming the victim would grant permission to give first aid if he or she was capable

good samaritan laws

laws to protect someone for being found financially responsible for the victim's injury

gastric distention

when you give a rescue breath and the air passes the lungs and goes to the stomach

universal distress signal

warning that a person is having difficulty breathing (choking)


rest, immobilize, cold, elevation

internal bleeding

tender,swollen, bruised, or hard areas of the body, confused, faint, drowsy, or unconscious, cool, moist, vomiting or coughing up blood, excessive thirst

control bleeding

cover with a dressing and press firmly for direct pressure; if bleeding doesn't stop add additional dressings over top

finger scoop

if you find an object in an unconcious person's mouth, you do this.

three universal precautions

wear gloves when in contact with blood, wash your hands to prevent pathogens from entering the body, use a face mask when performing first aid or breathing emergencies

first step in an emergency situation

check the scene to make sure it is safe for you first

second step in an emergency situation

call- location, phone #, what happened, # and condition of victims involved, get aed, what help is being given

third step in an emergency situation

care-life threatening injuries first, less severe-help them stay calm and relaxed

one second

how long each rescue breath should be


airways-look for chest rising; breathing-neck pulse; circulation; severe bleeding- look for blood

rigid splint

boards, wood, sticks

soft splint

sheets, blanket, towel

anamotical splint

uses an uninjured part to splint an injured part

reasons for CPR

no signs of life, no AED, unconcious

100 per minute

rate of compressions

continue CPR until

they show signs of life; scene is unsafe, AED available, too exhausted, someone else takes over


correct place to do chest compressions

heart attack

nausea, shortness of breath, general ill feeling, chest discomfort or pain (may spread to other areas), sweating

4 links in cardiac chain of survival

early recognition&access, early CPR, early AED, early advanced life support


tearing/streaching of muscles or tendans


pulled muscle


a crack or break in the bone


when circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the body

traumatic shock

caused by sudden injury

cardiac arrest

heart stops bleeding and blood flow stops

respiratory arrest

a person will stop breathing

clinical death

when breathing and circulation have stopped and you have 4-6 minutes of stored oxygen before your cells begin to die

biological death

when breathing and circulation have stopped for 10 minutes, and brain activity stops


every minute being wasted when a victim has a heart attack takes ___of a victim's life


emergency in which the airway is blocked


when a victim can partially move air to and from the lungs, cough, & speak


when a victim can no longer speak, cough, breath


escape of blood from capillaries, veins, and arteries


very small blood vessels tha cary blood dto all parts of the body


blood vessel that carries blood to the heart


large blood bessels that carry blood away from the heart

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