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Terms in this set (70)
Former prison in Paris attacked by a mob of citizens on July 14, 1789. The mob sought ammunition and arms to protect the National Assembly and the reform movement.
Old Regime (Ancien Regime)
French political and social system before the French Revolution (1789). It included an absolute monarch and 3 estates or groups of people.
The clergy in French society that made up 1% of the people, but owned 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes and received income from church lands.
The nobility in French society that made up 2% of the people, but owned most of the land. They were exempt from taxes and lived off grants from the royal treasury and rents paid by peasants.
Commoners in French society that made up 97% of the population. Members had no power in government, but paid all of the taxes. It was divided into bourgeoisie, worker, and peasant classes.
The highest class of the 3rd Estate. Members included doctors, lawyers, merchants, bankers and teachers.
French legislature made up of the 3 estates. Louis XVI called it in 1789 to address the financial crisis in France.
Members of the 3rd Estate who formed a legislature separate from the Estates General.
Tennis Court Oath
Oath taken by the National Assembly at an indoor tennis court after they were locked out of their meeting hall - vowed they would not disband until they gave France a constitution.
Attacks on local landlord by peasants in the summer of 1789. Peasants in the countryside were afraid that the nobles were planning to destroy their homes and crops.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
The preamble to the constitution adopted by the National Assembly. It stated, "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights".
When a monarch's power is limited by written law. In France, this was the type of government from 1792 to 1793.
The government controlled by the radical Jacobins that met after the constitutional monarchy ended. Declared France a republic, abolished the monarchy, and began a new constitution.
Government based on popular sovereignty where people delegate power to elected representatives. France was declared a republic in September 1792.
Universal Manhood Suffrage
The right of all men to vote.
Committee of Public Safety
A 12-member committee that had absolute power to save the revolution. Took strong action against anyone who spoke against the government.
Radical Jacobin leader who took control of the Committee of Public Safety and conducted the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
The period of the French Revolution between July 1793 and July 1794 when Robespierre and his followers executed anyone who spoke against the revolution or the Committee.
Machine used numerous times during the Reign of Terror which cut off the victim's head.
The government of France set up by the National Convention which lasted from 1795-1799. Composed of a Directory of 5 men and a legislature elected by male property owners.
Influential French painter who became an active supporter of the French Revolution and befriended Robespierre.
Form of monarchy in which one ruler has absolute power
Peter the great
Famous Russian Czar in the 17th century. Created strong navy and made Russia more western
Famous French absolute ruler, spent half the countries wealth himself
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god
Long line of monarchs in England, ending in 1603
Last Tudor monarch, died in 1603
first Tudor monarch, took throne in 1485
Monarchy line in England started in 1603
King James I
First Stuart monarch, had some issues with parliament
King Charles I
Second Stuart monarch after James, had many conflicts with parliament and eventually was executed in 1649. Lost war to Cromwell's "roundheads"
Led his roundhead forces against King Charles 1
English civil war
Began in 1642, parliament went against King Charles forces, parliament won
Last French king before the revolution
Lives of many people under absolutism
Most people in absolutist society were poor peasant farmers
Religion under absolutism
People listened and worshiped the church of that country
Conditions/traits/view in Europe
Everything was centered around the church
Copernicus introduced the HELIOCENTRIC theory, in which the Sun is the center of the universe and the plants revolve around it.
He used the telescope to support the heliocentric theory.
In 1633 he was brought to trial and forced to recant his beliefs.
William in 1628, an English doctor
Heliocentric and geocentric theories
A monarchy which is heavily overseen and monitored by another government branch in an effort to stop abosultism.
How did Limited Monarchy come to life in Great Britain?
Parliament invited William and Mary to rule the kingdom if they followed specific regulations and guidelines, which were done by parliment.
What are the four key elements of Democracy?
1. Limited Government 2. Rule of Law 3.Represnative Government 4. Protection of individual rights.
English Bill of Rights
Laws and restrictions are given for William and Mary to follow, making Parliament more powerful than the monarchs in an effort to defend the people's independent rights.
What caused the English Civil War?
Charles I was using Parliment for his gain, refusing to keep promises that Parliament wanted. To stop the abusive monarch, Parliment revolts against the king which leads to a seven-year war(1642-1649). Parliament is the victor.
What Happened to Charles I and Monarchy after the Civil War?
Charles I was found as a traitor and was executed, monarchy is aboloished and England becomes a commonwealth.
Did the commonwealth stay as a limited government?
No, in 1653 Oliver Cromwell declared himself as Lord Protector and dissolves parliament, essentially bringing back Monarchy.
Why did Parliament invite William and Mary to rule England?
King James II is showing similar actions of Charles I, so parliament wants to get him away from the throne.
What was the Glorious Revolution?
When William and Mary arrived, James II fled England so he wouldn't be killed. So the throne was taken without a bloody massacre or war.
Was Charles II an example of Limited Monarchy?
Yes, even though there was no English Bill of Rights and Charles II did support absolutism. Charles II was smart and didn't do anything to upset parliament, meaning parliament had a large say in what he did. So technically yes, Charles II was a limited Monarch.
18th century trend in thought that emphasized the power of human reason. Called the "Age of reason." Directly influenced the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
Spanish novelist and playwright. Wrote Don Quixote (first modern novel)
Scottish economist. Wrote The Wealth of Nations (considered first modern work of economics)
German music composer
Declaration of Independence
Natural rights, consent of the governed, popular sovereignty, gov'ts can be altered or abolished.
Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law
French painter whose work exemplified 19th century romanticism. Painted "Liberty leading the people."
French philosophe who edited the Encyclopedie.
English political philosopher who wrote Leviathan in 1651. Hobbes believed that human nature was cruel, greedy, and selfish. As a result, he thought the best form of government was an absolute monarchy so the monarch could impose order on society.
Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Popular sovereignty, all men created equal and have certain rights.
English political philosopher who wrote "Two Treatises on Government" in 1690. Locke believed that people are basically reasonable and moral. He said people are born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
eighteenth-century British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education.
universal laws that govern the physical world and human nature.
rights that belong to all humans from birth. Locke said natural rights include life, liberty, and property.
French political philosopher who wrote The Social Contract in 1762. He believed in popular sovereignty.
French philosophe and writer who believed in rationalism, argued for religious tolerance and separation of church and state. He defended freedom of thought, expression, and speech.
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