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Social Psych Exam 3
Terms in this set (57)
Maureen is really frustrated that the contractor working on her house is taking so long. But she doesn't want to yell at him because she is worried he will not produce quality work for her is she does. Instead, she yells and snipes at her husband. Maureen's aggression is ____
Which of the following is/are motivated by empathy?
The text describes cheating, stealing, and littering as ____
Given Asch's line-judging studies on conformity, it appears that people engage in normative conformity ____ when in the presence of larger groups (3-7 people) as opposed to smaller groups (2-3)
Which of the following conclusions is most accurate regarding the research on violence in the mass media and aggression?
It has shown that violent media can cause aggression
Which of the following is NOT an example of someone relying on a peripheral cue?
Anya is trying to decide what movie to go to tonight. "There are so many movies out there!" she thinks to herself. She decides to meticulously read through all available reviews, and then make a decision about what to see.
The tendency to be persuaded by others who are similar to us, or who are physically attractive, illustrates the importance of ___
People are more likely to buy cupcakes when they are described as "halfcakes, priced at a bargain price," as opposed to when they are simply described as "cupcakes". This is an example of people being influenced via the ____
Research indicates that there are a number of ways to increase helping. Which of the following are NOT one of these?
telling people to "go with their gut" when deciding whether or not to help
Distracting people can be a useful strategy when trying to make a persuasive argument, largely because
it prevents them from thinking of counterarguments
In the terminology of the elaboration likelihood model, people relying on conscious, careful processing of information are using the ____ route
Under what circumstances are attractive victims more likely to receive help than unattractive victims?
Under all circumstances- regardless of the helper's gender and regardless of the victim's gender
Which of the following anti-littering messages would probably be most effective?
"Most people think littering is disgusting; why be disgusting?"
Compared to people with low intelligence, people with moderately high levels of intelligence tend to be ___ when they encounter persuasive messages
more receptive but less yielding
In general, messages that are highly image-conscious and focus on brand names tend to appeal to people who are high in ____
Equity and equality are two types of ____
Recent data on violence in the world suggests that ____
it is decreasing over time
According to ____, people learn to behave aggressively in the same way that they learn other things-by direct experience and by observing others
social learning theory
The term ____ refers to the practice of revealing potentially incriminating info early on in an argument, before one is forced to do so and before one's opponent has an opportunity to be the one to reveal it, so as to negate its (potentially damaging) impact.
The sleeper effect refers to the finding that, over time ____
people tend to forget where (or from whom) they heard a persuasive argument or piece of information
Presenting the same information over and over but in a different format each time helps prevent
According to research, when will your employees be MOST likely to help one another out and speak well of their jobs?
when they think that the rules at work are fair and respectful
Conformity to social norms is likely to be highest when ___
when others are watching you
The idea that signs of disorder will induce other forms of antisocial behavior is known as ____
Broken Windows Theory
The proposal that "the occurrence of aggressive behaviors always presupposes the existence of frustration [and] the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression" is known as _____
the frustration-aggression hypothesis
Research with humans and monkeys on fairness- and the concepts of being overbenefited vs underbenefited- indicates that ____
humans worry about both, while monkeys worry primarily about the latter
The term "sensitvity about being the target of threatening upward comparison" refers to ___
concern about outperforming others and having others resent you for it
Research indicates that in societies where there is an intact rule of law, people are ___
How can a person defend against social influence techniques based on capturing and disrupting attention?
the person should try pause and eliminate distractions
Research suggests that people often learn to behave in particular ways based on modeling (observing and copying other's behaviors). Which of the following statements best describes how aggressive and nonaggressive models work?
Aggressive models can increase aggressive behavior and nonaggressive models can decrease it
Given the information collected from databases concerning US political attitudes, which of the following groups would appear to be MOST resistant to attitude change?
35- to 59- year olds
A number of social psych studies have made use of the autokinetic effect in order to understand ____
informational influence and the formation of group norms
Jayson is walking down a busy sidewalk, when someone going the opposite direction bumps into him. Jayson thinks the person meant to bump him to be rude. Jayson is most clearly exhibiting the ____
hostile attribution bias
In social psych, the tendency for people to be less likely to offer help when they are in the presence of others than when they aren't is known as ___
the bystander effect
Research on who helps whom indicates that ____
similar people, especially when the similarities are outwardly obvious, are motivated to help each other
As discussed in the text, the sociologists Phil Kunz once performed a study in which he sent 578 Christmas cards to a sample of complete strangers living in Chicago, Illinois. He received a total of 117 cards in return, as well as several phone calls- despite the fact that he did not know any of these people. Kunz's findings provide good evidence of ____
An experimental study gave participants a high does of cocaine, a low dose of cocaine, or a placebo. Subsequently, aggression levels were measured in participants. Results showed that the most aggressive participants were those that received the ____q
high dose of cocaine
Meg is a really attractive woman. Because of that, people often expect her to be really smart and nice, too. Meg probably benefits because of the ___ effect of her physical attractiveness
Social psychologists often make use of a game called the ____ to study people's tendencies to cooperate vs compete.
As part of a 10th grade "Social Living" course, a teacher has a guest speaker come to his classroom to talk about the dangers of drug use. The guest speakers is a former drug dealer and hardcore drug user, who became involved in crime as a result of his connection to drugs, spent many years in jail, later entered a drug rehabilitation program, and finally cleaned up his act. Social psychologists would refer to this kind of communicator as a(n) ____
Research on forgiveness in relationships indicates that ____
more forgiveness ultimately leads to better relationships
Informational social influence helps to produce ___, while normative social influence may merely elicit ___.
private acceptance; public compliance
At the most general level, the term antisocial behavior refers to ___
behavior that damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable
Compared to others, people with a strong need for cognition tend to be ____
more persuaded by strong arguments but less persuaded by weak arguments
Which distinguishes bullying from other acts of aggression?
it is persistent
The weapons effect refers to ___
the tendency for the mere presence of a weapon to increase aggression
The text uses the case of the Columbine shootings to illustrate the fact that ____
violent people tend to have narcissistic personality traits
An emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of others is called ____
Research on detecting lying concludes that ____
most people cannot tell when someone is lying to them
In his classic research on obedience to authority, Milgram found that roughly ___ of his participants eventually "went all the way" and administered the highest levels of shocks
Much of the time, people engage in altruistic behavior because doing so makes them feel good. Is it correct to conclude, then, that altruistic acts are fundamentally selfish? Or should such acts be considered altruistic despite their seemingly selfish motives? What do the textbook authors conclude about this?
such acts are best thought of as selfish AND helpful. Indeed, instead of pitting these drives against one another, the authors are positive about the evolution of these acts in general
Research suggests that male rates who are under stress respond with the tend and befriend syndrome. Does this pattern hold true for humans?
In general, yes
Some research has examined the relative effectiveness- across collectivist and individualistic cultures- of group-oriented messages (e.g. "Share this breath-freshening experience") vs individual-oriented messages (e.g. "Treat yourself to a breath-freshening experience"). This research has found that the ____
group-oriented messages are more persuasive to people from collectivist cultures, and individual-oriented messages are more persuasive to people from individualist cultures
Suppose that a researcher recruited a group of male professors and a group of violent prisoners, and randomly assign members of each group to play either (a) play competitive games, or (b) watch a documentary about golf. Based on past research regarding testosterone levels, we should expect that ___
the prisoner's who play the competitive games would have the highest testosterone levels
Egoistic helping is motivated by ___ and the end goal is to ___
personal distress; reduce one's own distress
Which of the following is a social influence technique based on reciprocation?
the door-in-the-face technique
According to the textbook, the outcome of a prisoner's dilemma game (whether people end up cooperating or competing) depends most on how the players initially approach the game and on ____
whether they communicate with one another during the game
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