51 terms

Chapter 5 Social Studies Test

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Monopoly
the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a community or service
British East India Company
trading company that had a monopoly over tea sold in the colonies
Militia
an army of unprofessional citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency
Minutemen
volunteers from Massachusetts who fought against the British and always kept their muskets at hand ("got ready in one minute")
General Thomas Gage
the British commander who planned to seize the weapons at Concord
The Boston Tea Party
the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded three English ships that contained tea and destroyed or dumped the tea into the Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773
Who was the King of England during this crisis with the colonies?
King George III
What were the Intolerable Acts?
four laws that were passed in the wake of the Boston Tea Party which closed down Boston Harbor until the money lost from the tea was payed back, made prosecuted criminals be tried in British court without a jury, passed a new Quartering Act, and limited the amount of town meetings in Massachusetts to one per year unless given special permission from the royal governor
What were the Committees of Correspondence?
a group led by Sam Adams that rallied the colonies against Britain and spread the news of the Intolerable Acts to other colonies
Where did the First Continental Congress meet and who were they?
the First Continental Congress were a group of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies to discuss current events and decided to promise support for Massachusetts, boycott British goods, and train militias for war
Who were the three riders that alerted the colonists of the British advance?
Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott
In what two towns did the American Revolution start?
Lexington and Concord
Why is the American Revolution called the "shot heard round the world"?
spurred other revolutions in France, Haiti, Mexico, Colombia, etc.
Sons of Liberty
angry colonists who protested British policies and staged mock hangings of British officials which were meant to show tax collectors what might happen to them; led by Samuel Adams
Mercy Otis Warren
helped start the Daughters of Liberty and published stories and plays against the British. Friends with Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams
Petition
formal written request to someone in authority signed by a group of people
Propaganda
ideas spread to help a cause, often exaggerated
Daniel Boone
explorer who went into Kentucky starting the Cumberland Road
What did the Proclamation of 1763 state and why was it significant?
British law that didn't allow colonists to move west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Significant because the British could not enforce it
What did the Stamp Act tax? Was it successful?
Tax on paper products, dice, liquor

Not one sold in America (unsuccessful)
What was the Sugar Act a tax on and what was its purpose?
Tax on sugar and molasses

To stop smuggling
What became the protest slogan after the Stamp Act was passed?
"No Taxation Without Representation"
What did the Quartering Act say?
It stated that local American colonists had to provide and accommodate the British soldiers staying in America
What did the Townshend Act tax?
glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
Describe who Samuel and John Adams were
politically active citizens from Massachusetts that organized people in the Sons of Liberty in protesting the British taxes
Who was Patrick Henry and why was he important?
Patrick Henry was a young Virginian lawyer who became known for his violent critiques of British policies
Describe the Boston Massacre. What role did Paul Revere play in the Boston Massacre?
Crowds of Bostonians insulted and threw things at British soldiers. The soldiers panicked and fired into the crowd, killing 5 colonists. Paul Revere then stirred up colonial anger when he made an exaggerated engraving of the massacre showing Redcoats shooting innocent unarmed citizens
French and Indian War
War between England and France and their Indian allies over the ownership of the Ohio River Valley
Fort Necessity
fort build by Major George Washington during the French and Indian War in order to help protect himself and his men from a French counterattack
Edward Braddock
General who led the British and failed to defeat the French using his conventional European battle tactics
William Pitt
new head of the British government who won the French and Indian War by spending all of Great Britain's money
What were the causes of the French and Indian War?
Both France and England claimed the Ohio River Valley and they had a long-standing rivalry
Lieutenant Governor Dinwiddie
lieutenant governor of Virginia who sent Major Washington to take take possession of the Ohio River Valley, starting the French and Indian War
What was the Albany Congress and where did it meet?
It met in Albany, NY and it tried to convince the Iroquois (Indian nation) to join the English in the fight against the French. They also tried to plan a united colonial defense by establishing a central government
Why did the Iroquois decide not to help the British?
They thought that the French were stronger and that the English were going to turn on them and take their land after the war
What was Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of The Union? Why was it so significant?
It tried to create a central government for the colonies. Significant because it was the first time a union was proposed and showed a willingness to accept self-rule.
What were the French advantages in the French and Indian War?
New France had one clear central government, more forts, and more Indian allies
What were the British advantages in the French and Indian War?
More population, colonies were on the coast, better navy, and some Indian allies
Why did the British struggle so much during the beginning of the French and Indian War?
They tried to fight with strategies that worked in developed Europe but not in the wilderness of North America
How did William Pitt help turn the tide of the war for England?
He sent his best general to American, united the colonies, provided good leadership, and spent a lot of money on soldiers
What were the important pints in the Treaty of Paris?
- marked the end of French power in North America (for the time being)
- Britain gained control of Canada and all lands east of the Mississippi River
- France kept their Caribbean island colonies
- Spain gave Florida to Britain
- Spain received all French land west of the Mississippi River
- Spain gained control of New Orleans
- Spain retained all of its colonies
Hurons
Indian tribe that had friendly relations with the French and served as negotiators for them
New France
the French colony in eastern modern-day Canada
Ohio River Valley
disputed area of fertile land between the Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains claimed by both France and England
Joseph Brant
Mohawk chief (real name Thayendanegea) who was the brother of William Johnson's wife. Became an important ally of the English
William Johnson
English trader and official that helped gain Indian support for England by marrying Joseph Brant's sister
Who were England's two main rivals in North America?
Spain and France
Where did Spain threaten England in North America?
The West Indies and along the border between Georgia and Spanish Florida
What job did most French settlers have in North America?
trapping and trading
Why did France build a system of military forts?
To protect their land claims from the English and Spanish and also to connect the very wide New France
Why did France expect the Indians to side with them instead of siding with England?
the French were not farmers like the English, so they didn't want Native American land; the French had a trading relationship with the Indians (fur); French men married Native American women