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Greece Key Terms Part 1 & Greece Key Terms Part 2
Terms in this set (73)
cultural regression (Regression = going backwards; opposite of "progression," which means going forwards)
When a society moves backwards, becoming less civilized, losing characteristics of civilization like writing, cities, long-distance trade, monumental architecture, etc., and falling into a period of known as a "Dark Age."
Greek-speaking people who lived in Greece's northern mountains and moved south into Greece during the Dark Age, bringing iron weapons to Greece.
The large peninsula in southern Greece, where many Dorians settled
A settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland.
A Greek city-state, like a tiny independent country
A fortified area at the top of a hill in the center of a polis, which provided a safe place in case of attacks. Often this area also served as a religious center, with temples and alters built on top.
An open area at the base a city-state's acropolis, which served as a market and a place where people could meet and debate issues.
a member of a political community who is treated as equal to all other members and who has rights and responsibilities
choose officials, pass laws, vote, own property, defend themselves in court
Rights of Greek citizens (List 5)
serve in the government, fight in the army
Duties of Greek citizens (List 2)
Heavily armed Greek citizen-soldier who fought on foot and carried a round shield, a short sword, and a 9-foot spear
A military formation, in which hoplites marched forward, row upon row, shoulder to shoulder, with their shields creating a protective wall
someone who takes power by force and rules with absolute authority
form of government in which the ruler takes power by force and rules with absolute authority
system of government in which a few people hold the power
system in which all citizens share in running the government
A city-state founded by the Dorians, which conquered and enslaved its neighbors and then created a military society in which all male citizens trained as warriors, in order to protect against a revolt by the people they had enslaved
Captive workers, who had been conquered and enslaved by the Spartans
Council of Elders
The group of 28 Spartan citizens over age 60 who wrote laws and presented them to the Spartan Assembly
The group of all Spartan citizens over age 30, which voted on laws and chose the five ephors
Five Spartan citizens chosen by the Assembly, who enforced the laws and managed tax collection
Athletic games in ancient Greece that included running, jumping, wrestling and boxing.
"Father of Athenian Democracy": Athenian leader who reorganized the Assembly so that it would play the central role in governing Athens by giving it new powers and creating the Council of 500 to help the Assembly carry out daily business.
The lawmaking body in Athens made up of all free, native-born men
Council of 500
The council of Athenian citizens created by Cleisthenes that helped the Assembly carry out the daily business of running the government
Cyrus the Great
Persian ruler who united the Persians into a powerful kingdom, and under his rule, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world. He conquered Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities. He issued the first known declaration of human rights in history on the Cyrus Cylinder.
a clay artifact found in Babylon that contains cuneiform script with the first declaration of human rights and freedom of religion
Road running 1500 miles across the Persian Empire
Persian religion that taught that there was one supreme being who was the creator of all things and a force of good in the world and that there was evil in the world, and that humans had the freedom to choose between good and evil, and that good would triumph in the end.
Prophet who founded the Persian religion that taught that there was one supreme being who was the creator of all things and a force of good in the world and that there was evil in the world, and that humans had the freedom to choose between good and evil, and that good would triumph in the end.
492 BCE - 479 BCE
Dates of the Persian Wars
Greek writer known as the "Father of History." He was the first person to record events so that people in the future would know what happened. He wrote the history of the Persian Wars—called The Histories
Excessive pride or self-confidence, which ultimately leads to a downfall
Greeks living in Ionia (along the coast of Asia Minor) revolted against Persian rule in 499 BCE. They asked for help from mainland poleis. Two city-states sent ships, but the revolt was crushed. Result: Darius I swore vengeance on mainland Greeks.
King of Persia who swore to avenge the mainland Greeks for helping the Ionians in their revolt. Launched first attack on Greece (1st Persian War), but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon. Also, he was the Persian king who had the inscription carved on Behistun Rock.
Two poleis that sent ships to help the Ionians in their revolt against Persian rule
Battle of Marathon
Battle in the First Persian War in which the Athenians defeated a much larger Persian army by using the weak center plan. (For more detail, see your Battles of the Persian Wars handout.)
The Athenian general who used the "weak center plan" to defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. He made the center of the phalanx very thin, and concentrated his soldiers at the edges. Then when the Persians attacked, the men in the middle backed up and the ones on the sides swung around, encircling the Persians
Son of Darius. Launched second attack on Greece (2nd Persian War); defeated the Greeks and the Battle of Thermopylae, but was defeated at the Battle of Salamis.
Persian preparations between the wars
Gathered an army of 250,000 men (3 million, according to Herodotus) and built a pontoon bridge across the Hellespont so that his army could cross (It would take to long to ferry them across in boats)
Greek preparations between the wars
Themistocles convinced the Athenians to use the silver from a newly discovered mine to build a navy. The Greeks formed an alliance called the Greek League.
Warships with three rows of oars on each side
An alliance of Greek poleis to defend against Persian attack, , with the army led by the Spartans and the navy led by the Athenians
("Lion Man") Spartan king who led the army of the Greek League and led the Greek forces in the Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle in the Second Persian War in which the Greeks, led by 300 Spartans, defeated a much larger Persian army. (For more detail, see your Battles of the Persian Wars handout.)
Athenian leader who convinced the Athenians to build a navy and then led the Athenians in the Battle of Salamis.
Battle of Salamis
Naval battle in the Second Persian War in which the Greeks tricked the Persians into entering a narrow straight, where their ships were ambushed (For more detail, see your Battles of the Persian Wars handout.)
Female commander in the Persian navy who advised Xerxes not to send his ships into the straight of Salamis, but he ignored her advice. Watching her battle, Xerxes exclaimed, "My men have become women, and my women men." Most of the Persian navy was destroyed at the Battle of Salamis, but this commander escaped with her ship.
Battle of Plataea
Final battle of the Second Persian War in which the Greeks defeated the remainder of the tired and hungry Persian army (For more detail, see your Battles of the Persian Wars handout.)
An alliance of Athens and other city-states (not including Sparta) after the Persian Wars to defend against another possible Persian attack and to drive the Persians out of the Greek poleis on the coast of Asia Minor.
The island where the headquarters of the Delian League was located
Non-voluntary league that evolved from the Delian League, as the Athenians took control over the other city-states in the league. Athenians controlled the treasury and commanded the fleet, and soon Athens began sending troops to other poleis to help the common people revolt against the nobles in power.
a system in which citizens gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters. Every citizen can vote firsthand on laws and policies. (Ancient Athens had this type of government.)
representative democracy, republic
Two names for the type of democracy in which citizens choose a elected representatives to make their laws and governmental decisions (The United States has this type of government.)
Athenian general who was the leading figure in Athenian politics for more than 30 years between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War. He made it easier for poor citizens to serve in the Athenian government and supported culture in Athens by building new temples and sculptures and supporting artists, writers and philosophers.
A war between Athens and its allies and Sparta and its allies (431-404 BCE). At first Sparta surrounded Athens, but Athens was able to keep itself supplied with its ships, which brought food into its harbor. But then a plague struck the people of Athens, killing over 1/3 of them, including Pericles. Finally, the Spartans made a deal with the Persians, giving Persia some territory in Asia Minor in exchange for enough money to build a Spartan navy, which gave Sparta the advantage and allowed Sparta to win the war.
Pericles' Funeral Oration
A famous speech in which Pericles honored the Athenian dead in the Peloponnesian War. In this speech, he spoke about the greatness of Athens and he reminded people that they made their government strong. He pointed out that citizens accepted certain duties, such as paying taxes and defending the city, and they gained certain rights, such as the ability to vote and run for office.
A kingdom north of Greece that was growing in power. The Greeks failure to notice this would eventually cost them their freedom.
Temple dedicated to Athena on the Acropolis in Athens
The simplest type of Greek column - plain on top
The type of Greek column with a scroll on top
The type of Greek column with leaves on top
A Greek scholar who believed that the mind could understand everything.
Greek philosopher who taught that the universe follows the same laws that govern numbers and music and who developed a theorem that is used in geometry to determine the length of the sides of a right triangle (a² + b² = c²).
Greek philosopher who believed that an absolute truth existed and that all real knowledge was within each person. He was accused of teaching young Athenians to rebel against the state, found guilty, and forced to drink poison.
"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
A teaching technique in which teachers ask questions, requiring their students to use reasoning to find the answers for themselves
Greek philosopher and student of Socrates, who wrote a book called The Republic, which described a utopian society ruled by a philosopher-king. He did not believe in democracy.
"Tyranny naturally arises out of democracy."
Greek philosopher who taught the idea of the Golden Mean, encouraged people to use their senses to make scientific observations, and wrote a book called "Politics" that compared different types of governments. He was also the tutor of Alexander the Great.
Plato's school in Athens (The name was originally the name of the sacred grove of trees where the school was located, but it came to be synonymous with "school.")
Aristotle's idea of moderation, that a person should do nothing in excess. It is the desirable middle between two extremes. (For example, courage is a virtue, but too much would be recklessness, and too little would be cowardice.)
"It is best to rise from life as from a banquet, neither thirsty nor drunken."
Aristotle quote (about the Golden Mean)
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