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Bio final exam (3)
Terms in this set (50)
The goal of mitosis is to produce daughter cells ___ and the goal of meiosis is to produce daughter cells ____.
with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell; that have half the normal chromosomes
During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes
A human bone marrow cell, in prophase of mitosis, contain 46 chromosomes. how many chromatids does it contain?
In the cells of many eukaryotic species, the nuclear envelope has to disappear to permit which of the following events in the cell cycle?
attachment of microtubules to kinetochores
Which of the following is not a function of microtubules in mitosis?
constricting to form the cleavage furrow
Through a microscope, you an see a cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of a cell and nuclei forming on either side of the cell plate. This cell is most likely ___.
a plant cell in the process of cytokinesis
Cells will usually divide if they receive the proper signal at a checkpoint in which phase of the cell cycle?
Which of the following properties is associated with a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)?
A Cdk is an enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to other proteins
Once a cell enters mitosis, the molecules that activate division must be turned off. What happens to MPF during mitosis?
The cyclin component of MPF is degraded.
What is the correct order of events?
Growth factors - Cdk4/CyclinD forms - RB phosphorylated - E2F released - Checkpoint passed
Imagine that there are 25 different species of protists living in a tide pool. Some of these species reproduce both sexually and asexually, and some of them can reproduce only asexually. The pool gradually becomes infested with disease-causing viruses and bacteria. Which species are more likely to thrive in the changing environment?
The sexually reproducing species is likely to thrive.
Which of the life cycles is typical for most fungi and some protists
Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of which of the following processes?
the random way each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I
What is crossing over?
the exchange of homologous portions of non sister chromatids
If a cell has completed meiosis I and the first cytokinesis, and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its genetic contents?
It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis
How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that are in prophase of meiosis I?
The cells have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA
Many organisms spend most of their life cycle in the diploid state. If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for these types of organisms?
Which of the following statements describes a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis
Meiosis II occurs in a haploid cell, while mitosis occurs in diploid cells
During which of the following phases of meiosis do homologous chromosomes separate
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the human Y chromosome?
It carries a gene that determines an individual's biological sex
Mendel's critical breakthrough was realizing that ___.
traits are inherited in a mathematically predictable way
Mendel picked pea plants to use for experiments because?
pure-breeding plants were available and he could artificially pollinate peas
When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygous individual, how do they interact with each other?
They do not interact at all
Mendel's observation of segregation of alleles in gamete formation has its basis in which of the following phases of cell division?
anaphase II of meiosis
Mendel's law of independent assortment has its basis in which of the following events of meiosis I?
alignment of pairs of homologous chromosomes along the middle of the cell
Skin color in a certain species of fish is inherited via a single gene with four different alleles. One fish of this type has alleles 1 and 3 (S1S3) and its mate has alleles 2 and 4 (S2S4). If each allele confers a unit of color darkness such that S1 has one unit, S2 has two units, and so on, then what proportion of their offspring would be expected to have five units of color?
Quantitative characters vary in a population along continuum. How do such characters differ from the characters investigated by Mendel in his experiments on peas?
Quantitative characters are due to a polygenic inheritance, the additive effects of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character. A single gene affected all but one of the pea characters studied by Mendel.
When ThomasHunt Morgan crossed is red-eyed F1 generation flies to each other, the F2 generation included both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, all the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result?
The gene involved is located on the X chromosome
Which of the following statements regarding gene linkage is correct?
The closer two genes are on a chromosome, the lower the probability that a crossover will occur between them
What does a recombination frequency of 50% indicate?
The two genes are likely to be located on different chromosomes
A couple has a child with Down syndrome. The mother is 39 years old at the time of delivery. Which of the following is the most probable cause of the child's condition?
One of the gametes in the mother most likely underwent nondisjunction during meiosis.
German scientist Carl Correns found that the inheritance of variegated color on the leaves of certain plants was determined only by the maternal parent. what phenomenon explains this pattern of inheritance?
inheritance of plastid genes
Sex determination in mammals is due to the SRY gene found on the Y chromosome. Which of the following situations could allow a person with an XX karyotype to develop a male phenotype?
translocation of SRY to an X chromosome
It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information. Which of the following characteristics of DNA is responsible for this?
sequence of bases
In his transformation experiments, what phenomenon did Griffith observe?
Mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.
Which of the following facts did Hershey and Chase make use of in trying to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material?
DNA contains phosphorus, whereas protein does not.
What is meant by the description "antiparallel" regarding the two strands that make up the DNA double helix?
The 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand.
In E. coli, which enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand in the 5' to 3' direction?
DNA polymerase III
In E. coli, there is a mutation in a gene called dnaB that alters the helices that normally acts at the origin of replication. Which of the following events would you expect to occur as a result of this mutation?
No replication fork will be formed.
Which of the following characteristics of eukaryotic telomeres cause them to replicate differently that the rest of the chromosome?
gaps left at the 5' end of the lagging strand template
Which of the following statements correctly describes the difference between the leading and the lagging strands of DNA during DNA replication?
The leading strain is synthesized in the same direction as the movement of the replication fork, and the lagging strand is synthesized in the opposite direction.
Which of the following molecular characteristics causes histones to bind tightly to DNA?
Histones are positively charged, and DNA is negatively charged.
In bacteria, there are 61 mRNA codons that specify an amino acid, but only 45 tRNAs. Which of the following statements explains this fact?
The rules for base pairing between the third base of a codon and tRNA are flexible.
Once a peptide bond has been formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the P site and the amino acid associated with the tRNA in the A site, what process occurs next?
Which of the following statements is true about protein synthesis in prokaryotes?
Translocation can begin while transcription is still in progress.
Extensive RNA processing is required before prokaryotic transcripts can be translated. Which of the following processes occurs in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes?
transcription and translation occur simultaneously
According to the central dogma, what is the intermediate molecule involved in the flow of information in a cell that should go in the blank? DNA - ______ - Proteins
Signals like the Shine-Delgarno function to ____ by _____.
initiate translation; binding to a sequence in the rRNA
Signals like the TATA box function to _____ by _____.
initiate transcription; binding to the DNA and recruiting the RNA polymerase
Transcription is to ____ as Translation is to _____.
copying; going from Greek to Latin
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