APUSH Period 5
Terms in this set (24)
The desire for access to natural and mineral resources and the hope of many settlers for economic opportunities or religious refuge led to an increased immigration to and settlement in the West
California gold rush
Farmers can move West and make more money because they could get more land
South wanted to expand slavery
Advocates of annexing western lands argued that Manifest Destiny and the superiority of American institutions compelled the United States to expand its borders westward to the Pacific Ocean.
Farmers can gain more land in West
Push Republican values in "inferior" Native Americans
South wanted to expand slavery
Ostend Manifesto (going to Cuba in attempt to take it over)
Spread US beliefs and institutions
The U.S. added large territories in the West through victory in the Mexican-American War and diplomatic negotiations, raising questions about the status of slavery, American Indians, and Mexicans in the newly acquired lands.
Westward migration was boosted during and after the Civil War by the passage of new legislation promoting western transportation and economic development.
Government provided subsides for RR
Homestead Act (gave land with promise to improve land)
U.S. interest in expanding trade led to economic diplomatic, and cultural initiatives to create more ties with Asia
Kanagawa Treaty (opened trade with Japan)
Missionaries spread Christianity in China
Substantial numbers of international migrants continued to arrive in the United States from Europe and Asia, mainly from Ireland and Germany, often settling in ethnic communities where they could preserve elements of their languages and customs.
Irish settled in cities Northwest, Catholic
Germans settled midwest (frontier) as farmers
Chinese settled in West as miners, farmers, and factory workers
Immigrant children attended religious schools
A strongly anti-Catholic nativist movement arose that was aimed at limiting new immigrants' political power and cultural influence.
U.S. government interaction and conflict with Mexican Americans and American Indians increased in regions newly taken from Americans Indians and Mexico, altering these groups' economic self-sufficiency and cultures.
Slavery moved into Texas territory
Americans didn't listen to Mexican government
US expected Natives to adopt white ways
The North's expanding manufacturing economy relied on free labor in contrast to the Southern economy's dependence on slave labor. Some Northerners did not object to slavery on principle but claimed that slavery would undermine the free-labor market. As a result, a free-soil movement arose that portrayed the expansion of slavery as incompatible with free labor.
Free soil movement - keep slavery from expanding
West only be opened to whites to prevent immigrants and free blacks from taking jobs from whites
African American and white abolitionists, although a minority in the North, mounted a highly visible campaign against slavery, presenting moral arguments against the institution, assisting slaves' escapes, and sometimes expressing a willingness to use violence to achieve their goals
John Brown's Raid
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Defenders of slavery based their arguments on racial doctrines, the view that slavery was a positive social good, and the belief that slavery and states' rights were protected by the Constitution.
Congress couldn't deprive anyone of property, slaves were property
Everyone, including poor whites, were higher in social standing than slaves
Framers of Constitution didn't intend Africans Americans to be citizens
Slaves had it better off than northern factory workers
African Americans, like Native Americans, were savages
The Mexican Cession led to heated controversies over whether to allow slavery in the newly acquired territories
Kansas Nebraska Act
Compromise of 1850
Wilmot Proviso (accepted by House because most were Northerners, rejected in Senate because there was an equal amount of Northern (free) and Southern (slave) states
Dred Scott decision
The courts and national leaders made a variety of attempts to resolve the issue of slavery in the territories, including the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision, but these ultimately failed to reduce conflict.
Kansas Nebraska Act -> Bleeding Kansas
Compromise of 1850 -> Popular sovereignty
Compromise of 1850 ->Fugitive Slave Law
Dred Scott decision ->Lincoln-Douglas debates
Slaves were property and couldn't be taken away
Congress didn't have power to regulate slave territories
LA added as a free state (tips balance in favor of free states)
Slave trade abolished in D.C
Abraham Lincoln's victory on the Republicans' free-soil platform in the presidential election of 1860 was accomplished without any Southern electoral votes. After a series of contested debates about secession, most slave states voted to secede from the Union, precipitating the Civil War.
Confederate States of America
Election showed southerners that they had no say in government
Both the Union and the Confederacy mobilized their economies and societies to wage the war even while facing considerable home front position.
Union used factories to make weapons
Confederacy used cotton in attempt to get trading partner Britain to help them
Both sides used drafts
North: rich could higher someone to take their place in draft
South: Farmers didn't want to fight or let their slaves fight
Lincoln and most Union supporters began the Civil War to preserve the Union, but Lincoln's decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation re-framed the purpose of the war and helped prevent the Confederacy from gaining full diplomatic support from European powers. Many African Americans fled southern plantations and enlisted in the Union Army, helping undermine the Confederacy.
Slaves freed in all areas of rebellion that kept European countries from siding with the Confederacy
Lincoln sought to reunify the country and used speeches such as the Gettysburg Address to portray the struggle against slavery as the fulfillment of America's founding democratic deals.
Ensured all men were created equal
Kept European countries from aiding South
Boosted Union moral
Although the Confederacy showed military initiative and daring early in the war, the Union ultimately succeeded due to improvements in leadership and strategy, key victories, greater resources, and the wartime destruction of the South's infrastructure.
Vicksburg (won Mississippi)
Sherman's March (destroyed South infrastructure)
Anaconda Plan (block South)
Antietam (kept European countries from aiding Confederate)
North: large population and more factories
The 13th amendment abolished slavery, while the 14th and 15th amendments granted African Americans citizenship, equal protection under the laws, and voting rights.
13th - abolished slavery
14th - citizen if born in US (equal protection under law(
15th amendment - universal male suffrage (didn't mention gender)
The women's rights movement was both emboldened and divided over the 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution.
14th said all persons born or naturalized in U.S. were citizens
15th didn't mention gender
Some people believed blacks suffered long enough and they needed rights first
Efforts by radical and moderate Republicans to change the balance of power between Congress and the presidency and to reorder race relations in the defeated South yielded some short-term successes. Reconstruction opened up political opportunities and other leadership roles to former slaves, but it ultimately failed, due both to determined Southern resistance and the North's waning resolve.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
African American, Hiram Revels, elected in 1870 to take the Senate seat from Mississippi
Presidential vs. radical reconstruction - Congress determines when to re-admit states
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Southern plantation owners continued to own the majority of the region's land even after Reconstruction. Former slaves sought land ownership but generally fell short of self-sufficiency, as an exploitative and soil-intensive sharecropping system limited blacks' and poor whites' access to land in the South.
Contracts bound signer to permanent and unrestricted labor
Plantation owners owned majority of land
Segregation, violence, Supreme Court decisions, and local political tactics progressively stripped away African Americans rights, but the 14th and 15th amendments eventually became the basis for court decisions upholding civil rights int he 20th century.
Presidential policy (giving Johnson power to grant individual pardons to "disloyal" southerners
The Second Party Sytem ended when issues of slavery and anti-immigrant nativism weakened loyalties to the two major parties and fostered the emergence of sectional parties, most notably the Republican Party in the North.
Election of 1860 caused the break up of Democrats (Northern Dems and Southern Dems)
Kansas Nebraska Act caused Republican Party to develop
Know Nothings Party
Whig Party is gone
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