42 terms

Prentice Hall World History Chapter 9 Sections 1-3

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Constantinople
the capital of the eastern Roman empire; capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, now called Istanbul.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565. Extended empire to largest size. Rebuilt Haggia Sophia (temple). Created a civil law code called Justinian's code. Had power over eastern orthodox church.
Justinian's code
collection of Roman laws organized by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later serving as a model for the Catholic Church and medieval monarchs.
Autocrat
ruler who has complete authority.
Theodora
She served as advisor and coruler to Justinian and even pursued her own policies.
Patriarch
in the Roman and Byzantine empires, highest church official in a major city.
Icon
holy image of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Great Schism
the official split between the Roman Catholic and Byzantine churches that occurred in 1054.
Steppe
sparse, dry, treeless grassland.
Kiev
capital of medieval Russia and of present-day Ukraine.
Cyrillic
relating to the Slavic alphabet derived from the Greek and traditionally attributed to St. Cyril; in modified form still used in modern Slavic languages.
Golden Horde
the Mongol armies that invaded Europe in 1237 and ruled Russia for over two centuries.
Ivan the Great
Also known as Ivan III, he brought much of North Russia under his control between 1462 and 1505. Create the 1st centralized Russian state. Asserted Russian independence from Mongols. Expanded Moscovic power.
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV, or Ivan the Greats grandson. He used the Tsar's power and used it unjustly to earn him the name "Ivan the Terrible". Killed his eldest son. Tortured animals. Broke power of nobles. Punished traitors. Hunted his enemies.
Tsar
Title of the ruler of the Russian empire.
Balkan Peninsula
Triangular arm of land that juts from Southeastern Europe into the Mediterranean.
Ethnic Group
Large group of people who share the same language and cultural heritage.
Diet
Assembly or legislature.
Golden Bull of 1222
The Charter that strictly limited royal power in Hungary.
What two seas are linked on a strait in Constantinople?
The Mediterranean and Black seas
Which Byzantine leader tried to recover the lands of ancient Rome?
Justinian
How was Justinian unlike monarchs in Western Europe?
He was an emperor
Where was the Byzantine empire created?
at Byzantia
Selguk Turks
Central Asian Muslims who controlled Jerusalem. The Pope did not like this and it led to the crusades.
Ohoman Turks
Used cannons to destroy walls to and take over. Named Istanbul.
Vladamir
Made orthodox Christianity the official religion of Russia.
Mongols in Russia
Split the Russian Empire.
Moscow
modern day capital of Russia (1200)
Pros of Ivan the Terrible
Innovative, had first meeting of the zembsky sobor. Military and landowners.
Cons of Ivan the Great
Lied to the Khan, married niece of emperor for power, autocrat, serfs, landowners.
Heritage of most Russians
Slav
Above Greece
The Balkans
Balkans (Balkan Peninsula)
Balkan Peninsula is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea to the west, the Mediterranean Sea (including the Ionian and Aegean seas) and the Marmara Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.. Near Russia, Scandinavia, W. Europe, Constantinople. Much fighting after the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Who was blamed for the black plague?
The Jews during the Jewish Migration from Western Europe to Eastern Europe.
What did Byzantine Christians reject?
The Pope's authority
What briefly brought the two halves of the Christian world together?
Crusades
What Ottoman ruler led his victorious forces into Constantinople?
Mehmet II
Byzantine Artists
Known for mosaics
Ivan the Great called himself..
Tsar
Boyars
Landowning Nobles from Russia
Old Stone Age
The earliest period of human history. During this time Paleolithic people developed skills and tools in order to survive.
Eight features of early civilization
1. Cities
2. Centralized Governments
3. Complex Religions
4. Job Specialization
5. Social classes
6. Arts & Architecture
7. Public Works
8. Writing