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APUSH Myself Ch. 15
Terms in this set (25)
-Vice President who took over presidency after Lincoln's assassination
-He initially followed Lincoln's policies but gradually became more conservative, giving amnesty to former Confederate officials and opposing legislation that dealt with former slaves
-His veto of the Civil Rights Act was overridden by Congress, which decreased his political power
-Johnson's oppositions to the Radical Republicans and his violation of the
Tenure of Office Act to his impeachment by the House
-The Senate was organized as a court to hear the impeachment charges, but it came one vote short of the constitutional two-thirds required for removal
Spokesman for this idea was Booker T Washington (founder of Tuskegee Institute)- believed blacks should attend school and learn skills in agricultural or trade, win respect of white population by adopting middle class standards of dress. His "Atlanta Compromise" sought to forgo political rights, concentrate on self-improvement and economic gains to earn recognition.
-Restrictions by Southern states on former slaves
-Designed to replicate the conditions of slavery in the post-Civil War South
-Various codes prohibited meeting without a white present, while others established segregated public facilities
-Led to Radial Republican opposition and exclusion of Southern representation in Congress
Booker T. Washington
-The son of a slave and a white man
-Taught at Hampton Institute and, in 1881, helped organize a school for African Americans in Tuskegee, Alabama
-The Tuskegee Institute emphasized industrial training to help African -Americans gather wealth and become influential in society
-Claimed that it was a mistake for African Americans to push for social equality before they had become economically equal
-His ideas were denounced by some leaders in the African American community
-Lectured throughout the United States and Europe and wrote various works, including his autobiography, Up From Slavery
-Derogatory Southern name for Northerners who came to the South to participate in Reconstruction governments
-Name came from the cloth bags of possessions many of them used to travel South
A Massachusetts senator and leader of the Radical Republicans, along with Thaddeus Stevens.
Compromise of 1877
-Compromise came after the disputed presidential election of 1876 between Hayes and Tilden
-Tilden won the popular vote but neither candidate won the electoral vote, because the electoral votes in three states were in dispute
-The Democrats agreed to give Hayes the presidency
-Hayes promised to show consideration for Southern interests, end Reconstruction, aid Southern industrialization, and withdraw remaining forces from the South
-This settlement left the freed African Americans in the South without support from the Republican Party
The system that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
Also known as the Klu Klux Klan Acts, these acts prohibited from discriminating against voters of different races, and gave the government power to supersede the state courts and prosecute violations of the law.
-African Americans became citizens and no state could deny life, liberty, or property without due process of the law
-Congressional support agency providing food, clothing, and education for freed slaves
-Ex-slave states were divided into districts that were managed by assistant commissioners
-Despite its benefits, the Bureau failed to establish the freed slaves as landowners
-It organized the African American vote for the Republican Party, creating great animosity toward the bureau in the South
-Hamilton Fish was an American statesman and politician who served as the 16th Governor of New York, a United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. He has been considered one of the best Secretaries of state due to her judiciousness and reform effort in the Grant Administration. (International Arbitration - Alabama claims with Great Britain) (Initiated process for Hawaiian statehood)
Ida B. Wells
-A black journalist
-In 1892, started an international anti-lynching movement.
i. It strove to get a law passed to stop lynching and punish those responsible but most of the South was unwilling to do so.
Jim Crow Laws
-Laws separating whites and African Americans in public facilities and restricting their legal guarantees, such as the right to vote
-Often part of state statutes
-Support for these laws was provided in the Plessy v. Ferguson case, demonstrating the limits of the Fourteenth Amendment
-Name of the laws are said to be derived from a character in a minstrel song
Ku Klux Klan
The largest and most effective racist secret society that opposed Reconstruction and civil rights for blacks. It was formed in 1866 and led by General Nathan Bedford Forrest and organized rituals, made costumes, and had an air of mystery about them. They terrorized those that supported Reconstruction and black communities in "midnight rides" where they dressed in all white on horseback and rode with muffled hooves. Southerners considered them a military force and they were as a whole fighting for white supremacy.
Panic of 1873
-Economic depression during Grant's second term
-Over-expensive, unregulated business during the post-Civil War years, the failure of American investment banking firms, and economic downturns in Europe all contributed to the panic
-Led to the retirement of greenbacks and a return to the gold standard
Plessey vs. Ferguson
-Homer Plessy refused to leave a railroad car restricted only to whites
-The Supreme Court upheld the Louisiana state law that required "separate but equal" facilities
-The majority stated that the Fourteenth Amendment protected only political equality and not social equality
-Justice Harlan's dissent argued that "...all citizens are equal before the law," laying the foundation for Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, which would overturn "separate but equal"
-Faction of the Republican Party that believed the Civil War was meant to stop slavery and emancipate all slaves
-Believed Congress should control Reconstruction and not the president
-Rejected the reentry of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana into the Union, despite their qualification under the "10% Plan"
-They wanted the rebellious South to be dealt with in a harsher manner
=Ben Wade and Thad Stevens were among their members
With the loss of the Confederate government, southern residents turned to these local leaders. They were known both for their efforts to "redeem" the South from being dominated by Yankees, as well as their redemption of the South from a one-crop society. They believed strongly that a laissez-faire federal government would be more productive than the militarily enforced Reconstruction. Their opponents said that this group just intended to repress blacks at the expense of whites and to increase their political power.
-Derogatory name for Southerners working for or supporting the federal government during Reconstruction
b. Some of these Southerners had opposed the war from the beginning, while others helped Reconstruction for financial gain
-Partially in response in Reconstruction, a group of Southern whites formed the Ku Klux Klan, which targeted carpetbaggers, scalawags, African American, and others with aggressive and sometimes violent acts
Many blacks that did not own land during Reconstruction worked for others in one form or another. Some worked for wages, others became tenants of white landowners, working their own plots of land and paying their landlords either fixed rent or a share of their crop. This system mimics the gang-labor system of the antebellum plantation. As tenants and sharecroppers, blacks enjoyed at least a physical independence from their landlords and had the sense of working their own land.
-Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress who was devoted to a stringent and punitive Reconstruction effort.
-Worked towards equality for Southern blacks
-A proposal to reunite the country by Senators Wade and Davis
-Required that 50 percent of a state's white male voters take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union
-Demanded stronger efforts on behalf of states to emancipate slaves
-Lincoln "pocket-vetoed" the bill in favor of his "10% Plan"
- American politician from New York
-Served as 12th governor of New York, Unites States Senator and Secretary of state under Johnson and Lincoln
-Determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War
-Dominant figure in the Republican party in its formative years
-Widely regarded as the leading contender for the party's presidential nomination in 1860
-Argued that Christian legislators must obey God's moral law as well as man's mundane
-Appealed to a "higher law" than the constitution
-That may have cost him presidential nomination and presidency in 1860
-Engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia
-Derisive title of Secretary of State William Seward's decision to purchase Alaska for $7.2 million from Russia
-Congress agreed to the purchase, as Russia had been pro-North during the Civil War
-Most members thought the purchase to be foolhardy since the land was in such a remote location
-Russia was willing to sell Alaska because Russia was overextended abroad and feared the loss of Alaska in a future war
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