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The principal culture that transferred Greek astronomical knowledge to Renaissance Europe was...
Which was a contribution to astronomy made by Copernicus?
He laid out the order and relative motion of the known solar system
Which of the following was NOT included in Copernicus' heliocentric model?
The orbits of the planets are ellipses
Which of these was NOT a part of the original Copernican model?
Mercury speeds up at perihelion, and slows down at aphelion
Which of the statements below is part of both the Ptolemaic and Copernican models?
The Moon orbits the Earth once a month
Which of these was NOT seen telescopically by Galileo?
Which of the following was NOT a contribution of Galileo to astronomy?
the changing appearance of Saturn's rings corresponds to our seasons
Which of the following is a contribution to astronomy made by Galileo?
All of the above:
1. Moon has craters, mountain, valleys, and dark flat areas on its surface
2. Venus appears almost fully lit when it lies on the far side of the Sun
3. the astrological telescope can show us far more detail than the eye can
4. Jupiter has 4 moons orbiting it
Which of these observations of Galileo refuted Ptolemy's epicycles?
the complete cycle of Venus's phases
Which of these was NOT a telescopic discovery of Galileo?
the moons of Saturn
A fatal flaw with Ptolemy's model is its inability to predict the observed phases of...
Mercury and Venus
The most accurate Greek attempt to explain planetary motion was the model of...
It took two centuries for the Copernican model to replace the Ptolemaic model because...
there was no scientific evidence to support either model until Galileo made his observations
Galileo found the rotation period of the Sun was approximately...
Kepler's first law worked, where Copernicus' original heliocentric model failed, because Kepler described the orbits as...
elliptical, not circular
Tycho Brahe's contribution to Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion was...
his detailed and accurate observations of the planet's position
The most famous prehistoric astronomical observatory is...
A circular orbit would have an eccentricity of...
Upon which point do Copernicus and Kepler disagree?
the orbits of the planets are ellipses, with one focus on the Sun
What contribution to astronomy was made by Tycho Brahe?
his observations of planetary motion with great accuracy proved circular orbits could not work
Which concept was NOT a part of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion?
Epicycles are needed to explain the varying brightness of the planets
According to Kepler's third law, the square of the planet's period in years is...
proportional to the cube of its semi major axis in AU
The Ptolemaic model probably persisted for all these reasons EXCEPT...
it accounted well for Galileo's observations of the phase cycle of Venus
What does Kepler's third law imply about planetary motion?
planets further from the Sun orbit at a slower speed than planets closer to the Sun
A planet whose distance from the Sun is 3AU would have an orbital period of how many Earth-years?
The place in a planet's orbit that is closest to the Sun is called...
The planet with the most eccentric orbit is...
If an object is observed to orbit the Sun in an orbit with an eccentricity of 0.9, what type of object is likely to be?
During the 18thand 19th centuries, attempts to precisely measure the astronomical unit relied largely on rare...
transits of the inferior planets across the Sun
Today we rely largely on what technique to precisely measure distances in the solar system?
radar echo timings
The force of gravity varies with the...
Both A and C are correct:
1. product of the 2 masses
2. inverse square of the distance separating the 2 bodies
The Law of Universal Gravitation was developed by...
The force of gravity between two objects...
increases with the masses of the bodies, but decreases with the square of the distances between them
The greatest contribution of the Greeks to modern thought was...
the development of scientific inquiry and model building
According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, if the Moon were three times further from Earth, the force by Earth on the Moon would...
decrease by a factor of 9
How much stronger is the gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth, at 1AU, than it is on Saturn at 10AU?
Which of these was a contribution of Newton to astronomy?
all of these were due to Newton's work
Geosynchronous satellites orbit at about4 Earth radii, where the Earth's gravitational pull is...
Jupiter lies about 5AU from the Sun, so at its distance...
the Sun's gravity is 25 times weaker than its pull on the Earth.
How does Newton's Law of Gravitation explain Kepler's laws?
both C and D are correct:
C. Universal gravitation implies that when a planet is closer to the Sun in its orbit, it will move faster than when it is farther from the Sun (Kepler's second law)
D. Universal gravitation implies that the planets further from the Sun will move more slowly than the planets closer to the Sun (Kepler's third law)
Given that the planet orbiting the nearby star 51 Pegasi is about 20X larger than the Earth, but 400X more massive, on that world you would weigh...
the same as you do here
If the distance between two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force they exert on each other will...
be on fourth as great
Compared to orbital velocity, escape velocity is about...
Orbital speed is the speed with which a planet moves around the Sun. This speed is determined by...
the mass of both the planet and the Sun and the distance between the two
The Ptolemaic model of the universe...
explained and predicted the motions of the planets with deferents and epicycles
Escape velocity is the speed required to...
overcome the gravitational pull of an object
According to Copernicus, retrograde motion for Venus must occur around...
inferior conjunction, when it passes between us and the Sun
Combining Newton's and Kepler's laws, we can weigh the Sun, provided we know...
the size of the AU and exact length of the year
Kepler's second law implies what about planetary motion?
a planet moves faster when it is closer to the Sun
Scientists today do not accept the Ptolemaic model because...
the work of Tycho and Kepler showed the heliocentric model was more accurate
On which of these assumptions do Ptolemy and Copernicus agree?
all orbits must be perfect circles
The heliocentric model was actually first proposed by...
According to Copernicus, the retrograde motion for Mars must occur...
at opposition, when the Earth overtakes Mars and passes between Mars and the Sun.
T/F: It was the Chinese who provided critical ancient data on supernovae and comets.
T/F: The orbits of most of the planets in our solar system have eccentricities close to zero.
T/F: Kepler based his theories on the precise planetary observations of Tycho Brahe.
T/F: The eccentricity of a perfectly circular orbit is 1.
T/F: Kepler determined the shape of each planet's orbit by triangulation from different points on Earth's orbit, using observations made at many different times of the year.
T/F: Mercury, with a higher eccentricity orbit, should change its orbital speed more than do Venus or Earth.
T/F: A planet (or comet) will speed up as it approaches the Sun.
T/F: Transits of Venus were critical in early determinations of the AU.
T/F: Newton's Laws completely replaced the incorrect work of Kepler.
T/F: Newton's modification of Kepler's Third Law lets us measure the mass of the Sun.
T/F: Newton's Law of Gravity would explain why Saturn, so far from the Sun, moves so slowly across the sky.
T/F: Islamic scholars helped preserve the astronomy of Ancient Greece during Europe's Dark Ages.
T/F: If the mass of a body were doubled, its gravity would become 4 times stronger.
T/F: According to Newton's second law, if you double the force acting on a body, the acceleration will double.
T/F: When a planet retrogrades, it appears to move westward for weeks at a time.
T/F: Like the Sun and the Moon, the planets appear to move from west to east from one day to the next.
T/F: Like the Sun and the Moon, the stars appear to move from west to east from one day to the next.
T/F: As originally stated, the Copernican model did no better job of predicting planetary behavior than did the Ptolemaic one.
T/F: Galileo's observations of the entire phase cycle of Venus proved the Ptolemy's epicycles could not be correct in keeping Venus between us and the Sun.
T/F: Galileo's observations of sunspots proved the Sun was rotating, like the Earth.
T/F: Kepler found the orbits of planets are ellipses, not circles.
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