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Human Development Through the Lifespan Final
Terms in this set (100)
3 phases of adolescence
Adolescence Sleep Habits
Teens go to bed later, however they still need the same amount of sleep as children
Early Pubertal Maturing Appears...
Males-- attractive, independent
Females-- anxious, unattractive
Homosexuality sequences of coming out
Self Acceptance(end of adolescence)
Teenage Pregnancy Abort Rate
egocentric state where the individual believes that a lot of people are enthusiastically watching them & listening. usually in early adolescence
adolescents may believe that they are unique and special so that non of life's hardships will affect them, regardless of their behavior.
Reading: Foresight Conquers Fear of the Future
teenagers have to make critical decisions by themselves, but aren't at full brain functioning until 25. Reckless behaviors occur. Teenagers want immediate benefits without concern for the long term costs.
Identity Status Types
Achievement-- commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration
Moratorium-- Exploration without yet having reached commitment
Foreclosure-- commitment in the absence of exploration
Diffusion-- an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Each has two stages within it
Influences on Moral Reasoning
Child Rearing Practices, Years of Schooling, Peer Interaction, Culture
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior, and movement toward a more traditional gender identity. Stronger for girls, magnified by puberty.
Family Influences on Development
The more secure the base with family is, the more confidently young people can move out into the wider world.
group of about 5-7 members who are friends and usually resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values. begin as same sex.
several cliques with similar values form a larger, more loosely organized group. "nerds" "jocks" "druggies"
Mixed sex cliques prepares youth for dating. Too early dating= increased drug use, sex, poor academics, dating violence
Factors Related to Suicide
Gender, Ethnicity, family environment, high life stress, sexual orientation, personality(intelligent, withdrawn, antisocial), triggering negative events
Warning Signs of Suicide
bullying, fighting, increased risk taking
Depression in adolescence
most common psychological problem. twice as many girls than boys. influenced by heredity, parental depression, learned helplessness.
Preventing Delinquency(Zero tolerance policy)
inconsistent and ineffective. involves too much severe punishment.
Reading: Heartbreaks and Homeruns
Primacy Effect-- "early life memory bump" we remember our first of something more than the 10th
Flashbulb memories-- intense emotional sensation etch first experiences deeply into memory.
First Experiences shape the way we view ourselves(who we are, will be in love, loss, and success)
Theories of Biological Aging
DNA Cellular Level-- programmed effects of specific genes "aging genes", telomere shortening
Organ/Tissue Level-- cross linkage theory- can be reduced by external factors such as diet and exercise. gradual failure of endocrine system. declines in immune system functioning.
Motor Performance in Adulthood
Athletic skills-- peak between 20 & 35, decline gradually until 60's, then rapidly.
Obesity in Early Adulthood
Consequences-- health problems, social discrimination, mistreatment
Treatment-- lifestyle changes, social support, problem solving skills, extended intervention, record keeping(food)
Community Services, Routine Screening, Validation of Experience, Safety Planning
reflections at how we have arrived at beliefs and ideas
divide information into right & wrong or good & bad
viewing all of the knowledge as embedded into a framework of thought
John Holland's 6 Personality Types
Investigative, Social, Realistic, Artistic, Conventional, Enterprising
Periods-- Fantasy, Tentative, Realistic
Choice Factors: Personality, Family Influences, Teacher, Gender Stereotypes
Resiliency in Emerging Adulthood
Cognitive-- having planning& decision making skills, good school performance, necessary skills, Emotional-- having positive self esteem, flexible coping strategies, good conflict resolution, confidence, time management, Social Support-- positive relationships with parents, peers, mentors, financial support, sense of connection to social institutions
an age graded expectation for major life events... ex: marriage, birth of children
Selecting a Mate
Most people select partners similar to themselves. Gender differences(women--intelligence, ambitoin, morals. men-- attractinvess, domestic skills), Evolutionary Perspective(women--caring for a child, men-- youthfulness, birthing of child), Social Learning(women-- caregiving, men-- success)
Robert Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
Intimacy-- emotional component. Concern for others wellbeing.
Passion-- psychological & physical arousal.
Commitment-- cognitive component.
Leaving the home...
average age of leaving home is rising. over half of 18-25 year olds return home after moving away. SES impacts ability to move out.
Most consistent predictor of marital stability
Age of Marriage
clear division of roles. man is the head of the household. women is the caregiver & homemaker.
partners are equals. equally spent devoting time to their careers.
Disadvantages of Parenthood
Loss of freedom, role overload, financial strain, impinge on women's career
living together, sexually intimate, but not getting married. preparation for marriage or alternative for marriage.
Gay & Lesbian Parents Effects
Lesbian couples are more likely to be parents than gay couples. Children do not differentiate from peers cognitively or socially
Causes, Factors, and Consequences of Divorice
Ineffective problem solving, separate lives, major problems: infidelity, money issues, substance abuse. Background factors: age, religion, prior divorce, SES, gender roles.
Consequences-- major change in self image, increased depression, anxiety, impulsivity. Women tend to be more resilient after divorice
Challenges to women career development
discontinuous career path: leave for child rearing, family care. Gender gap in salary affected by college major choice. Gender Stereotyping.
Reading: All Joy and No Fun: Why Parents Hate Parenting
focuses on the changes that happened over the recent years about the view on having children. Parents have pressure to 'sculpt' their child. parents feel guilty about not spending enough time with their children.
most are actually happy to be parents, it gives you purpose & reward.
Drop in Estrogen. Hot Flashes, Sexual Difficulties, Irritability, Sleep Difficulties, Depression.
Reactions: Free from birth control, physical attractiveness, no more child bearing.
Reducing Cancer risks in middle adulthood
get regular checkups and screenings. avoid tobacco excessive sun exposure, unnecessary X rays, industrial chemicals. Healthy Diet. Physical Activity. Weigh risks of hormone therapy.
Reducing Heart Attack risks in middle adulthood
Quit smoking. Reduce Cholesterol. Treat high blood pressure. Maintain ideal weight. Exercise regularly. Occasional wine or beer. Take low dose aspirin. Reduce hostility and stress.
Control, Commitment, Challenge
underlying reason behind all age-related declines in cognitive performance
the general slowing of central nervous system function and how it slows with age
knowledge of specific detailed events, terminology, dates
knowledge of subject-specific techniques, methods, skills, algorithms
awareness of one's thoughts
SES relating to flexible thinking
The opportunities to be able to have a higher job allows your thinking to be more flexible because you have more options. complex work allows for longevity of flexible thinking.
sources of support for midlife college students
Partner & Children, Extended Family, Friends, Educational Institution, Workplace
giving to others, guiding the next generation
self centered, lack of interest in young people
Levinson's Four Tasks of Middle Adulthood
Valliant's View of Midlife
Older people are guardians of their culture. Passing the torch to the next generation.
Midlife Crisis Views
Stage View-- developmental transitions
Life Events View-- adaptions to normative life events
Psychological Well Being in Middle Adulthood
Good Health & Exercise, Sense of Control & Personal Life Investment, Positive Social Relationships, Good Marriage, Mastery of Multiple Roles
Coping Improvements in Middle Adulthood
Coping Strategies: Identifying Positives, Postponing action while evaluating alternatives
Personality Changes: complex, integrated, coherent self descriptions, blending strengths and weaknesses, gains in emotional stability and confidence
Androgyny in Midlife
Increase in opposite gender traits. Theory: Parental Imperative
Big 5 Personality Traits
Openness to Experience
Caring for Aging Parents
Factors: Finances, Location, Gender, Culture
Causes: Long term jobs stress, work with high emotional demands, unsupportive work environment, excessive work assignments for available time, lack of encouragement from supervisors
Actual Competence and Performance-- may not match chronological age
Life Expectancy in America
Increasing because of steady decline in infant mortality. Decreases in adult death rates.
Life Expectancy Variations
Due to heredity, environment, gender, SES, Ethnicity, Nationality
Factors Contributing to Long Life
Heredity, Diet, Weight, Optimistic, Social Support, Learning, Low Substance Use, Environment
Quality of Life
ADLS(Activities of Daily Living)-- Basic self care
IADLS(Instrumental Activities of Daily Living)-- conducting business of daily life, requires some cognitive competence
Stereotypes of Aging
That Deterioration is Inevitable, Stereotype Threat, Source of Pride in some cultures
Genetically Influenced Declines, Affects all members of species, Occurs even when health is good
Declines due to heredity AND environment. Individualized. Illness and Disabilities.
Select- choose personally valued activites
Optimize- devote diminishing resources to valued activities
Compensate- find creative ways to overcome limitations
Episodic Memory Lapses: slow cognitive processing, poor attention to context. Recall declines.
Recognition easier than recall. Implicit Memory better than explicit Memory.
Very Long-term recall, autobiographical memory for both remote and recent events.
Remembering to engage in planned actions, Event-Based easier than time based, Reminders can help
Peck's Tasks of Ego Inegrity
Ego Differentiation-- affirm self worth through family & friends
Body Transcendence-- emphasize cognitive, emotion, and social powers
Ego Transcendence-- face reality of death constructively
religiosity in late adulthood
Very important to Americans over 65. Enlarged view of common good. greater generativity, closeness to family & friends.
Factors in Psychological Well-Being in Late Adulthood
Control vs Dependency, Physical Health, Negative Life Changes, Social Support
Dependency Support Script
attend immediately to dependent behaviors
Independent Ignore Script
ignore independent behaviors
Person Environment Fit
match between person's ability and demands of living environments
Impact of Social Support
Positive social support promotes physical health, psychological well being
mutual withdrawal between older adults and society
Social barriers cause declining rates of interaction
effort to maintain consistency between past and anticipated future
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
social networks become more selective with age, extending lifelong selection process. emphasizes emotion regulating functions of social contact.
Most stressful life event for many. 1/3 of older adults. Loneliness. Men: more likely to remarry, more physical & mental health problems.
Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect, Emotional Abuse, Sexual Abuse, and Financial Abuse
Minimize loss and maximize gains. Focused on reaching personal goals. Controllable factors.
Phases of Dying
Agonal-- gasps and muscle spasms during first moments in which heartbeats declines
Clinical Death-- heartbeat stops, but resusicitation is still possible
Mortality-- permanent death
Children's Understanding of Death
Permanence is first understood, then Inevitability, then sensation, then applicability, then causation.
The fear and apprehension of death. Declines with age. Women more anxious than men. Cultural Variations.
Kubler-Ross Theory of 5 Responses to Death
Traditional Places of Death
40% take place in hospital
25% die at home
Rest in long term care
Comprehensive program of support services for terminally ill people and their families
Forms of Euthanasia
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