46 terms

Architecture Humanities

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Terms in this set (...)

How is architecture out together?
Structure, Material, Line, Repetition, Balance, Scale, Proportion, Context, Space, Climate,
What types of structure exist?
Post & Lintel, Arch, Cantilever, Bearing-Wall, & Skeleton Frame
Post & Lintel
Horizontal beams laid across spaces between vertical supports
Tensile Strength
ability of a material to withstand bending
Compressive Strength
Ability of a material to withstand crushing
Arch
Transfers stress outward from center to legs. Requires the use of buttresses to support legs
Flying Butress
buttresses made of light material
Arcade
Several arches side by side
Tunnel Vault
Arches back to back to enclose a space
Groin Vault
When two tunnel vaults intersect at right angles
Ribbed vault
junction of arches in a tunnel or groin vault
round arch
Horseshoe arch
Lancet arch
Ogee arch
Trefoil arch
Tudor arch
Cantilever
an overhanging beam or floor supported at only one end
Bearing Wall
the wall supports itself, the floors, and the roof
Skeleton Frame
framework supports the building
What building materials are common in architecture?
Stone, concrete, wood, and steel
Stone
Used in masonry and brick walls
Concrete
Three types of concrete: precast concrete, ferro-concrete/reinforced concrete, and prestressed & posttensioned concrete.
Precast concrete
concrete placed using wooden forms around a steel framework
ferro-concrete/ reinforced concrete
metal reinforcing embedded in concrete
prestressed & posttensioned concrete
metal rods & wires under stress or tension to cause structural forces to flow in predetermined directions
wood
least impact on environment
steel
most versatile material
line, repetition, and balance
same functions as in sculpture
scale and proportion
scale- refers to a building's size in relation to the human form
proportion- relationship of the elements to each other
context
the environment the building is in (this affects the style and type of building)
space
design and function of contiguous spaces relative to function
climate
how severe hot and cold temperatures affect building structures (i.e adding solar panels)
passive systems
design accommodates natural phenomena
how does architecture stimulate the senses?
controlled vision, symbolism, styles, function, dynamics, and scale
controlled vision and symbolism
controlled vision- use of line and other elements to direct the attention of the audience to the desired aspects of the work
symbols- aspects meant to emulate other aspects of the world (i.e raised ceilings to represent heaven)
style
can include things Gothic styles, Moorish, and other styles
function
knowing the function of the building just by looking at it
dynamics
How the movement of the eye flows from one section to the next.
post and lintel examples
the Parthenon or Stonehenge
Arch examples
Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France
What work is associated with Frank Lloyd Wright?
What work is associated with sir christopher wren
How are most skyscrapers built? What type of structure do they use? What special considerations do architects designing skyscrapers have to take into account? Where were some of the first skyscrapers built and why in this particular city?
Most skyscrapers are built using skeletal frames with metal, otherwise known as a steel cage. Architects must consider how weather will affect these higher altitude structures. Th first skyscraper was built in Chicago (the home insurance company) but some were eventually built in New York . They were built to support the growing city population.
How are arches, barrel vaults, groin vaults, and domes related?
All are composed of arches. These arches contain curves and transfer stress outward.
What is an example of post and lintel structure and what are its limitations?
Some examples include the Parthenon and Stonehenge. They are limited due to tensile strength, aka their ability to resist bending.

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