Post & Lintel, Arch, Cantilever, Bearing-Wall, & Skeleton Frame
Post & Lintel
Horizontal beams laid across spaces between vertical supports
ability of a material to withstand bending
Ability of a material to withstand crushing
Transfers stress outward from center to legs. Requires the use of buttresses to support legs
buttresses made of light material
Several arches side by side
Arches back to back to enclose a space
When two tunnel vaults intersect at right angles
junction of arches in a tunnel or groin vault
an overhanging beam or floor supported at only one end
the wall supports itself, the floors, and the roof
framework supports the building
What building materials are common in architecture?
Stone, concrete, wood, and steel
Used in masonry and brick walls
Three types of concrete: precast concrete, ferro-concrete/reinforced concrete, and prestressed & posttensioned concrete.
concrete placed using wooden forms around a steel framework
ferro-concrete/ reinforced concrete
metal reinforcing embedded in concrete
prestressed & posttensioned concrete
metal rods & wires under stress or tension to cause structural forces to flow in predetermined directions
least impact on environment
most versatile material
line, repetition, and balance
same functions as in sculpture
scale and proportion
scale- refers to a building's size in relation to the human form proportion- relationship of the elements to each other
the environment the building is in (this affects the style and type of building)
design and function of contiguous spaces relative to function
how severe hot and cold temperatures affect building structures (i.e adding solar panels)
design accommodates natural phenomena
how does architecture stimulate the senses?
controlled vision, symbolism, styles, function, dynamics, and scale
controlled vision and symbolism
controlled vision- use of line and other elements to direct the attention of the audience to the desired aspects of the work symbols- aspects meant to emulate other aspects of the world (i.e raised ceilings to represent heaven)
can include things Gothic styles, Moorish, and other styles
knowing the function of the building just by looking at it
How the movement of the eye flows from one section to the next.
post and lintel examples
the Parthenon or Stonehenge
Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France
What work is associated with Frank Lloyd Wright?
What work is associated with sir christopher wren
How are most skyscrapers built? What type of structure do they use? What special considerations do architects designing skyscrapers have to take into account? Where were some of the first skyscrapers built and why in this particular city?
Most skyscrapers are built using skeletal frames with metal, otherwise known as a steel cage. Architects must consider how weather will affect these higher altitude structures. Th first skyscraper was built in Chicago (the home insurance company) but some were eventually built in New York . They were built to support the growing city population.
How are arches, barrel vaults, groin vaults, and domes related?
All are composed of arches. These arches contain curves and transfer stress outward.
What is an example of post and lintel structure and what are its limitations?
Some examples include the Parthenon and Stonehenge. They are limited due to tensile strength, aka their ability to resist bending.