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Bates' Children and Adolescent Examinations- Reviewed
Terms in this set (82)
After infancy, the rate of physical growth slows by approximately __________.
When taking a health history, assess the __________ between parents and child.
"Goodness of fit"
Toddlers who are of 9 to 15 months may have _______________, a fear of strangers, that is developmentally normal.
Parents of children younger than ____ years should stay with them.
While you need to get information from both the parent and the child, it is useful to start with the _____________.
Many children begin their trajectory toward obesity between ages ________.
3 and 4 years
Short stature, defined as height _____________, can be a normal variant or caused by endocrine or other diseases.
BMI measurements are helpful for early detection of obesity in children older than _______.
Most children with exogenous obesity are also _____ for their age.
Child with __________ causes of obesity tend to be short.
Underweight BMI-for age
Healthy weight BMI- for age
Overweight BMI-for age
The most frequent "cause" of an elevated BP in children is probably an _________________.
Improperly performed examination (incorrect cuff size)
If BP readings of the thigh are the same or lower than of the arm, _______________ should be suspected.
Coarctation of the aorta
Transient HTN in children can be caused by common childhood medications, such as _______________.
Prednisone and Ritalin
_________ is highly associated with HTN in childhood
HR Age 1-2 years
Avg: 110, Range: 70-150
HR Age 2-6 years
Avg: 103, Range: 68-138
HR Age 6-10 years
Avg: 95, Range 65-125
Tachypnea in children older than age 1 year is a respiratory rate ________breaths per min.
Children younger than ________, who appear very ill with a fever, should be evaluated for sepsis, UTI, PNA, or other serious infection.
Amblyopia can lead to a ____________, with permanently reduced visual acuity if not corrected early.
Ocular strabismus and anisometropia (eyes with significantly different refractive errors) can result in ____________, or reduced vision in an otherwise normal eye.
The common forms of strabismus in children involve _____________ deviation.
Reduced visual acuity is more likely among children who were born ___________ and among those with other neurological or developmental disorders.
Any difference in visual acuity between the eyes is abnormal by age __________.
The most common visual disorder of childhood is __________, which can be easily detected using an "E" chart.
Some children develop abnormalities in ______________, which can lead to reading difficulties, headaches, and school problems, as well as double vision.
Acute otitis media symptoms:
Red, bulging TM with a dull or absent light reflex and diminished movement on pneumatic otoscopy. Possible purulent material behind TM.
For conducting an otoscopic exam on a child, use the ________ possible speculum.
The handle of the otoscope should point ________ due to the angle of the auditory canal in children.
Movement of the pinna elicits pain in _________.
Movement of the tympanic membrane is _______ in middle ear effusion (otitis media w/ effusion)
Younger children who fail hearing maneuvers or who have speech delay should have ________ testing.
Causes of _________hearing loss include congenital and abnormalities, trauma, recurrent otitis media, and TM perferation.
Causes of ____________ hearing loss include hereditary congenital infections, ototopic drugs, trauma, and some infections such as meningitis.
Pale, boggy nasal mucous membranes are found in children with _______.
Purulent rhinitis is common in _________ infections.
Foul-smelling, purulent, unilateral discharge from the nose may be due to a _____________.
Flesh-colored growths inside the nares.
Children with purulent rhinorrhea for more than 10 days, HA, sore throat, fever, and tenderness over the sinuses may have ___________.
______________ are most common health problem in children.
Inspect the upper teeth for __________ caries.
The finding of strawberry tongue is seen in ________.
Scarlet fever and streptococcal pharyngitis
A _________ is suggested by erythema and asymmetric enlargement of one tonsil, pain, and lateral displacement of the uvula.
Bacterial tracheitis can cause ________.
Tonsillitis can be caused by bacteria, such as _________, or __________.
Snoring and sleep apnea is related to ______________.
Abnormal breath odor
Nuchal rigidity is marked resistance to movement of the head in any direction and suggests __________.
In croup (an upper airway obstruction), ___________ is prolonged and accompanied by stridor, cough, or rhonchi.
With lower airway obstruction such as asthma, ________________ is prolonged and often accompanied by wheezing.
_____________ in young children is generally manifested by fever, tachypnea, dyspnea, and increased work of breathing.
In childhood asthma, wheezes are often accompanied by inspiratory ___________ caused by upper respiratory congestion.
A common condition of childhood that can occasionally cause a protuberant abdomen is ________________.
Functional disorders causing abdominal pain include:
IBS, functional dyspepsia, childhood functional abdominal pain syndrome.
Many children present with abdominal pain from ________________, which conveys increased bowel sounds on auscultation and mild tenderness on palpating.
Precocious puberty is due to excess ___________ and can be caused by multiple conditions including adrenal or _________ tumors.
In ____________, the penis and testes are enlarge with sign of pubertal changes.
__________ can induce menses in a young girl.
Purulent, profuse, malodorous, and blood-tinged vaginal discharge should be evaluated for the presence of ______________.
Infiltrate, foreign body, or trauma
Tenderness noted on rectal examination of a child usually indicates an infectious or inflammatory cause, such as an __________ or ___________.
Subluxation of the radial head from a tugging injury
Acute limp in childhood is usually caused by __________.
Trauma or injury
Chronic limp in childhood could be caused by _____________.
Blount disease, spinal disorder, hip disorders, leg length discrepancy, or leukemia.
Positive when the pelvis tilts toward the unaffected hip during weight-bearing on the affective side.
A positive Gower sign can be seen when children rise to standing by rolling over prone and pushing off the floor with the arms, which occurs in children with ___________
Pelvic girdle weakness from muscular dystrophy
Children with mild cerebral palsy may have both slightly increased tone and ___________.
Some children with __________ will have difficulty in cooperating with your neurologic and developmental examination because of problems focusing.
Causes of sustained HTN in adolescents include:
Primary hypertension, renal parenchyma disease, and drug use
Adolescent acne tends to begin during ____________.
Middle to late puberty
An adolescent with persistent fever, tonsillar phyaryngitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy may have ______________.
A pulmonary flow murmur accompanied by a fixed split second heart sound suggests ____________ such as an atrial septal defect.
Right-heart volume load
Delayed puberty is suspected in boys who have no signs of pubertal development by _________ years of age.
Most common cause of delayed puberty in males is ____________, in which hormone levels are normal.
Less common causes of delayed puberty in males includes:
Primary or secondary hypogonadism and congenital GnRH deficiency
Delayed puberty is females (no breasts or pubic hair development by age 12 years) is usually caused by inadequate ____________.
Gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary due to defective hypothalamic GnRH production.
_______________ in females can be associated with early onset of puberty.
Causes of secondary amenorrhea include:
Stress, excessive exercise, and eating disorders
Idiopathic scoliosis, seen mostly in _______, is usually detected in early adolescence.
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