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psyc 365 exam 5
Terms in this set (35)
1. What is the difference between reactive depression and a major depressive episode?
reactive depression is usually caused by a situation e.g a death or heartbreak it gets resolved and you know why. major depression is more intense, don't know why, lasts longer , suffer socially,suicide has two or more symptoms occur or lasts 2 weeks or longer
2. Review the basic mechanism of action (block reuptake, block degrading enzymes, etc) of the antidepressant drugs discussed in class. Which neurotransmitters are affected by each drug?
the MAOI is an enzyme, it is the 1st drug antidepressant tuberculosis ant and was developed which blocks the reuptake of NE ,DA 5-HT. Tricyclic antidepressants: block the reuptake of 5-HT and NE
SSRI : block the reuptake of 5-HT and some NE
SSNRI: slows the reuptake of 5-HT and NE
Bupropion blocks the reuptake of DA
Clomipramine : has no effects on NE and only blocks 5-HT
3. Why are MAO-I drugs not used very much anymore?
MAOI aren't used as often because they react with daily diet and cause dietary restrictions sleep disturbances, changes in bp increase stroke heart attack reacts with the sympathetic system
4. Which two parts of the brain were suggested to be involved in anxiety disorders such as panic attacks and post traumatic stress disorder?
amygdla a major fear center; over activation you causes anxiety
Hippocampus ; memory makes association with a specific feeling of panic , realse of cortisol in PTSD and the area is 12% smaller
5. Which neurotransmitter(s) is(are) affected by each of the different antianxiety drugs discussed in class?
6. What are some side effects associated with barbiturates?
reduces rem sleep , cognitive impairment frontallobe and hippocampus , potentially reacts with alcohol , physically dependent
7. Which disorders are benzodiazepines used to treat?
alcohol withdrawal sleep disorders anxiety mild seizures or convulsions and mild muscle relaxers
8. How is BuSpar different from other antianxiety drugs?
agonist for 5-HT 1a receptor. used for chronic anxiety doesn't react with alcohol no rush/high, less effective than BDZ , takes longer to work
9. Review the basic mechanism of action (block reuptake, block receptors, etc) of the antipsychotic drugs discussed in class. Which neurotransmitters are affected by each drug?
10. Which antipsychotic drugs are first generation, second generation, and third generation? Only worry about the major ones we discussed in class
1st generation : haperidol (Haldol) & thorazine
2nd generation : clorazil( non traditional Risperdal, zypexa ,serquoel
3rd generation: abilify Arirprazole
11. What is the dopamine hypothesis?
the da ypothesis states that messages from neurons that transmit DA fire too easily and too often.
DA hypothesis: Thorazine works: Blocks D2 receptors 1st Generation from the Phenothiazine class Amphetamine psychosis - High levels of Dopamine, which cause symptoms to mimic Schizophrenia Parkinson's disease - L-Dopa (Dopamine precursor) converts to Dopamine
Against: Autopsies of Schizophrenia patients had normal levels of Dopamine, Homovanillic acid, Dopamine's active metabolite, was normal in urine sample
12. What is the law of thirds?
1/3 people improve considerably, 1/3 doesn't work at all , 1/3 improvement to some degree
13. What are Parkinsonian symptoms associated with the use of first generation antipsychotic drugs?
restlessness , prolonged abnormal posture tremor at rest fixed facial expressions
14. What is tardive dyskinesia?
more than likely permanent , hyper kinetic movement , affects the hypothalamus and pituitary gland which affectd a food intake decrease body temp change and sex hormone change. can lead to bone marrow toxiticity and Liver disease jaundice . affects 15% schizo patients
15. Which antipsychotic drugs treat mostly positive symptoms but have less effect on negative symptoms?
1st and 2nd gen , Thorazil, halidol and Seroquel
16. Which antipsychotic drugs treat positive and negative symptoms?
Clorazil , riseperol, Zyprexa, abilify
17. What are some positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
positive: hallucinations , thought disorder, delusions ,responsive to drugs
Negative: flat affect , poverty of speech , lack of initiative anhedonia social w/drawal , less responsive to drug trx
18. What is agranulocytosis?
death of white blood cells caused by the destruction of bone marrow . immune deficiency more prone to disesaes this is caused by excess absorption of clorazil
19. What are the four basic effects of NSAIDs? Do all NSAIDS exert all four effects?
anti- inflammatory , antipyretic ; reduce body temp, analgesic ; decrease pain, anticoagulant ; blood thinners
no they do not
20. What is a risk associated with high doses of acetaminophen
can leadto liver toxixity especially if mixed with etoh if over 4,000 mg is consumed . kidney failure , may block/ slow the reuptake of anandamide
21. Which over-the-counter chemical is often abused by adolescents to get high? What effects can this drug have on the brain?
DXM cough medicine . Blocks 5-HT reuptake and glutamate receptors acts like PCP, can cause a dissociative high. high doses lead to olney lesions scarring in the brain
22. How do NSAIDs work as an analgesic (how do they reduce pain)?
works at the sight of pain. it works to block COX so prostaglandins cannot be made.
23. Who in the population should not take aspirin?
pregnant women and children should not take asprin can create ryes syndrome which can result I damage to their mitochondria , hypoglycemia causing fatality
people with bleeding disorders
24. What type of drug is dextromethorphan (e.g. what does it do)?
antitussive drug and it is the mirrorimage of codeine.Large quantities of consumptionlead to similar hallucinogenic properties like PCP and ketamine
25. What is diphenhydramine and what is it used for in over-the-counter drugs?
it is a antihistamine it blocks histamine it is an OTC sleep aid
26. Review the basics of the FDA approval process.
10 - 11 year process. phase 1 R short term- R&D 1-3 years . FDA safety review 30 days phase 1 2 and 3 7 year process , nda submit for 12 months watin for nda approval and phase 4 is indefinite monitoring of the drug
27. Which chemical is found in over-the-counter stimulants?
28. What are some of the risks discussed in class associated with the use of herbal supplements?
they are not under FDA regulation, very little is known about what is being sold plan of action not designed to cure or treat . Don't have what is listed or have contaminents 32%
29. Which neurotransmitters are affected by ephedrine and what basic effect does it have on the brain?
affects 5-HT , DA , NE , adrenaline. Is very similar to amphetamines , increases heart rate and BP
30. What do companies who market ginkgo biloba claim it does?
helps with memory and cognition . Is sold to older people and is claimed to help with demetia and alzheimers . it is a blood thinner so it helps with strokes.
31. What is St. John's wort used for?
Helps with mood . Depression and anxiety. It's supposed to work like a maoi and block the reuptake of 5-HT side effects include dry mouth dizziness constipation, serotonin syndrome , hypomanic state , mild mania , photodermatitis
32. What is kava used for and what is a major concern associated with its use?
relieve anxiety , might stimulate GABA receptors , Jaundice results in severe liver damage worse than alcohol
33. What do companies who market echinacea claim it does?
They claim it helps with the common cold , used in airborne , high doses of vitamins can become toxic and cause blurred vision and softening of the bones
34. What is Zicam used to treat?
lessen the duration and symptoms of a cold . the Zinc in Zicam destroys receptoors in your nose only available in cough drops
35. What is melatonin and what is it suggested to do by companies who market it?
melatonin is an edogenous chemical in found in the pineal gland it's supposed to help with sleep . but it is unclear what it does in humans, 5-HT is synthesized in the pineal gland .
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