Pertaining to factors or things that are separate and independent from living things; nonliving.
Any compound that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Also, a water solution that contains a surplus of hydrogen ions.
a soil horizon; the layer below the O layer is called the A layer. The A layer is formed of weathered rock; with some organic material; often referred to as topsoil.
a basic substance; chemically, a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxyl ions; in reference to natural water, a measure of the base content of the water.
an underground layer of porous rock, sand, or other material that allows the movement of water between layers of nonporous rock or clay. aquifers are frequently tapped for wells.
the gaseous mass or envelope surrounding a celestial body, especially the one surrounding the Earth, which is retained be the celestial body's gravitational field.
a long, relatively narrow island running parallel to the mainland, built up by the action of waves and currents and serving to protect the coast from erosion by surf and tidal surges.
a soil horizon; B receives the mineral and organic materials that are leached out of the A horizon.
the result of chemical interaction with the bedrock that is typical of the action of both water and atmospheric gases.
a soil horizon, horizon C made up of larger pieces of rock that have no undergone much weathering.
the transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage, especially the transmission of electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself.
the vertical movement of a mass of matter due to heating and cooling; this can happen in both the atmosphere and Earth's mantle.
air currents caused by the vertical movement of air due to atmospheric heating and cooling.
an erosion-resistant marine ridge or mound consisting chiefly of compacted coral together with algal material and biochemically deposited magnesium and calcium carbonates.
The observed effect of the Coriolis force, especially the deflection of an object moving above the Earth, rightward in the Northern Hemisphere, and leftward in the Southern Hemisphere.
the practice of alternating the crops grown on a piece of land - for example, corn one year, legumes for two years, and then back to corn.
a plate boundary at which plates are moving away from each other. This causes an upwelling of magma from the mantle to cool and form new crust.
a method of supplying irrigation water through tubes that literally drip water onto the soil at the base of each point.
the result of variation (often due to plate movements) deep in the Earth that release energy. They often occur as two places slide past one another at a transform boundary.
a climate variation that takes place in the tropical Pacific about every three to seven years, for a duration of about one year.
the process of soil particles being carried away by wind or water. Erosion moves the smaller particles first and hence degrades the soil to a coarser, sandier, stonier texture.
the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through, but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface.
the development and introduction of new varieties of (mainly) wheat and rice that has increased yields per acre dramatically in countries since the 1960's.
a system of vertical and horizontal air circulation predominating in tropical and subtropical regions and creating major weather patterns.
the dark, crumbly, nutrient-rich material that results from the decomposition of organic material
(typhoon, cyclone) - a server tropical cyclone originating in the equatorial regions of the Atlantic Ocean or Caribbean Sea or eastern regions of the Pacific Ocean, traveling north, northwest, or northeast from its point of origin, and usually involving heavy rains.
a high-speed, meandering wind current, generally moving from westerly direction at speeds often exceeding 400 km (250 miles) per hour at altitudes of 15 to 25 km (10 to 15 miles)
when soil becomes water-logged and then dries out, and salt forms a layer on its surface.
a cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns.
the outer part of the Earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle, approximately 100 km (62 miles) thick.
the cultivation of a single crop on a farm or in a region or country; a single, homogeneous culture without diversity or dissension.
the uppermost horizon of soil. It is primarily made up of organic material, including waste from organisms, the bodies of decomposing organisms, and live organisms.
Physical (mechanical) weathering
any process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces without changing the chemistry of the rock; typically wind and water.
when water rights are given to those who have historically used water in a certain area.
the low-rainfall region that exists on the leeward (downwind) side of a mountain range. This rain shadow is the result of the mountain range's causing precipitation on the windward side.
a bloom of dinoflagellates that causes reddish discoloration of coastal ocean waters. Certain dinoflagellates of the genus Gonyamlax produce toxins that kill fish and contaminate shellfish.
the bedrock, which lies below all of the other layers of soil, is referred to as the R horizon.
the right, as to fishing or to the use of a riverbed, of one who owns riparian land (the land adjacent to a river or stream).
the process in which soil becomes saltier and saltier until, finally, the salt prevents the growth of plants. Salinization is caused by irrigation because salts brought in with the water remain in the soil as water evaporates.
the atmospheric pressure conditions corresponding to the periodic warming of El Nino and cooling of La Nina.
in tectonic plates, the site at which an oceanic plate is sliding under a continental plate.
a layer in a large body water, such as a lake, that sharply separates regions differing in temperature, so that the temperature gradient across the layer is abrupt.
the outermost shell of the atmosphere, between the mesosphere and outer space, where temperatures increase steadily with altitude.
the more or less constant winds blowing in horizontal directions over the Earth's surface, as part of Hadley cells.
also known as transform faults, boundaries at which plates are moving past each other, sideways.
a cyclonic storm having winds ranging from approximately 48 to 121 km (30 to 75 miles) per hour.
a process in which cold, often nutrient-rich, waters from the ocean depths rise to the surface.
counties that have a renewable annual water supply of about 1,000-2000 meter cubed per person
the day-to-day variations in temperature, air pressure, wind, humidity, and precipitation mediated by the atmosphere in a given region.
the gradual breakdown of rock into smaller and smaller particles, caused by natural chemical, physical, and biological factors.