6th Grade Science Semester 1 Vocabulary Review

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Gospel
Good Tidings
Worldview
The philosophical position from which a person interprets events in the world and upon which he makes life decisions
Secular
Without religion, worldly
Sediments
Are small particles of eroded materials such as rock soil and clay
Model
A physical, verbal or mathematical structuree
Theory
A tentative model that scientist use to explain data and scientific concepts
Law
A model that scientists use to describe reliable, universal relationships between different kinds of things
Data
Something unknown ore assumed to be true
Inference
A conclusion drawn from something known or assumed to be true
Hypothesis
The Initial explanation for the problem, may need revision
Operational Science
Investigates events and facts that can be observed in the here and now
Geology
The study of the earth
Uniformitarianism
The belief that earth forming processes are natural, have always been the same and have always happened at the same gradual rate
Deep-time view
The view that the earth is 4.5 billion years old
Lithosphere
The earth's crust and the solid, rock part of the mantle
Natural Resource
Any raw material that we use from our environment
Plate Tectonics Theory
Describes how and why tectonic plates move in the past and are moving today
Renewable resource
Resources that have unlimited supply or can be easily replenished
Nonrenewable Resource
Resources that have a fixed amount, that are used up and can't be reeplenished
Resource Management
The effort to oversee and control the use of natural resources
Tectonics
Having to do with buildings
Magma
Molten rock found within the crust and in the mantle
Derive
To obtain information from other information
Nebular Hypothesis
A model that predicts that everything that formed in a solar system nebula spins or orbits in the same direction as the original nebula
Stratum
Layers of rock (plural strata)
Geologic column
The model of the theoretical column of rock strata constructed by geologists that documents the history of the earth
Principle of superposition
The view that the oldest stratum is at the bottom and the outer layers were placed in order above it in the geologic column
Diluvial Geologic Column
Created by geologist Tasman Wallser, divides the earth's history into 5 distinct biblical time periods
Historical Science
Investigates things that happened in the unobservable past
Dominion Science
Science done to accomplish the work of biblical dominion
Seismology
The study of earth waves
Stress
A measure of force exerted on an object
Fault
A crack in the earth
Epicenter
The point on the surface of the earth directly above the place within the earth where an earthquake actually occurs
Focus
Center of an earthquakes activity underground
Magnitude
Measurement of energy released by the earths movement
Richter Scale
Measurement of the strength of earthquakes, measured in intensity from 1-10
Mercalli Scale
Earthquake destructiveness scale, measured in Roman numerals from I-XII (1-12)
Tsunami
Occur when seismic waves shake a body of water
Folded mountains
occurs when plates push together and the result is rocks and debris be3ing warped and folded into mountains
Fault Block Mountains
Enormous underground pressure forces a while rock mass to break away from another
Dome Mo0untains
Occurs when magma is pushed up between layers of rock, causing the upper layers to bulge upwards
Volcanoes
Forms when an expulsion of materials from deep within the earth pile up on the earth's surface, forming a mountain
Cinder Cone Volcano
Made of a steep hill made of cinders, ash and other volcanic materials
Composite Volcano
Large, made up of many layers of hardened lava and other volcanic materials
Shield Volcano
A broad volcano with gently sloping sides made up almost entirely of fluid magma flows
Mineral
A naturally occurring inorganic crystalline solid that has a definite chemical composition
Ore
Rocks that contain certain valuable minerals
Mineralogist
A scientist who specifically studies minerals
Petrology
The study of rocks
Metamorphosis
A noticeable or complete change
Sediment
Loose material such as sand, mud clay or pebbles
Igneous ROck
Form during the cooling of magma or lava
Metamorphic orck
Result from changes to existing rocks
Sedimentary Rock
Form when the accumulation of sediments harden otgher
Weathering
Breaking down rocks and other
Erosion
The movement of weathered materials
Dposition
Layering weathered materials down in a new location
Chemisal Weathering
The breaking down of rocks physical means without changing what they are
Ice Wedging
When water seeps into cracks in the rock and freezes and expands and breaks the rock apart
Biological weathering
Mechanical weathering process caused by plants or animals
Biological weathing
Mechanical weathering process cause by plants or animals
Deflation
The process of being blown away by wind
Abrasion
When wind driven sand erodes exposed rocks, especially softer sedimentary rocks
Dune
a pile up of wind driven sand
Loess
Deposits of thick, fine grained strata
Glacier
A large mass of dense ice that flows under the influence of gravity
Root Pry
when the roots of plants cause mechanical weathering
Glacial drift
Deposits of sediments from glaciers
Till
Glacier drift that drops directly from the ice
Moraine
Ridges of till
Pedologist
Scientists who study soil, soil formation and erosion
Soil
Layered formation at the surface of the earth made of inorganic earth materials combined with organic nutrients
Landslide
Rapid mass wasting of earth materials downhill
Soil Horizon
Layers of soil
Humus
Materials formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter which helps soil hold water
Loam
Rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand and silt
Soil conservation
Conserving soil as a natural resource